The abundance of elements in the universe and on earth is a measure of how much in terms of mass or percentage of that element is naturally occurring. Some elements in the universe such as hydrogen and helium, very basic elements make up large amounts of matter in the universe. Where as rare elements like francium and caesium are much less abundant and rare.
Atomic structure is the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons circling around it, within an atom.
The periods of the periodic table are the rows that run from left to right in the periodic table. The elements are not arranged in these because of similar properties but because of their increasing atomic number from left to right.
Atomic mass refers to the mass of both the protons and neutrons and is always the larger of the two represented in the periodic table.
Isotopes are elements with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus but the same number of protons.
Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that have either lost or gained electrons so they have a positive or negative charge.
Some elements have to be made in the lab as they cannot exist in the natural world like most elements. These elements sometimes require special conditions and equipment to force them to decay or force two different nuclei together.
Electrons exist in shells around the nucleus and have different configurations and layouts based on the element in the periodic table. Electrons are also very important in bonding.
Bonding describes how metallic and non metallic elements of the periodic table exist as elements or combined together to form new compounds with different properties.
Metallic bonding is the bonding found in metals, positive metal ions surrounded by a sea of delocalized electrons.
Covalent bonding is the bonding found in non metals, involving the sharing of a pair of electrons or more between the atoms.
The nuclear charge of an atom is the measure of the effect of attraction between the protons in the nucleus and the outer electron
Ionisation energy is a measure of the amount of energy required to remove an outer electron from an atom creating a positively charged ion.
Oxidation states are a measure of the difference in the number of protons and electrons in an ion or atom
Radioactivity is a property of a number of elements in the periodic table where their nuclei break down and release particles such as alpha, beta and gamma particles.
Group 1 is the first group in the periodic table containing elements that are commonly known as the Alkali metals. They are all metals and increase in reactivity down the group and when reacted with water form alkali solutions
J.J Thomson contributed massively to the model of the atom and the modern day theory. His work involved the use of cathode ray tubes and identifying a particle lighter than the atom itself, the electron.
The atomic radius is a measure of the distance from the nucleus to the valence electron.
Nuclear charge is a measure of the effect of the number of protons in the nucleus and their ability to attract the negative electrons in orbits around the nucleus.
Ionic radius can be defined as the size of the radius of an ion from the nucleus to the valence electron. The ionic radius is difficult to measure due to the overlap of ions in a lattice structure.
Electron affinity is a measure of the energy released when an electron is added to an atom to create a negatively charged ion.
Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons towards it in a covalent bond
Bond strength is the measure of how strong a bond is in terms of the energy needed to make and break the bond
Complex ions form when a metal ion is surrounded by ligands that coordinately bond to the metal ion forming a complex.