Glossary of Terms

Get familiar with the vocabulary around the Periodic Table and Chemistry

Barium

Barium (Ba) is a soft silvery white coloured metal that has the atomic number 56 in the periodic table. It is an Alkaline earth metal and is located in Group 2 of the periodic table. it has the symbol Ba.

Beginner

Berkelium

Berkelium (Bk) is a silvery colored radioactive metal that has the atomic number 97 in the periodic table. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Bk.

Beginner

Beryllium

Beryllium (Be) is a light silver-gray metal that has the atomic number 4 in the periodic table. It is an Alkaline earth metal with the symbol Be that belongs in Group 2 of the periodic table.

Beginner

Beta

Beta particles are made of an electron released from a nucleus when it breaks apart

Beginner

Beta particle

A beta particle occurs when a neutron in an unstable nucleus turns into a proton and electron. The electron is released from the atom as the radiation

Novice

Biological organism

A biological organism is the term used to describe a living object. This term could be used to describe both bacteria and humans as they are both living species.

Novice

Bismuth

Bismuth (Bi) is a hard steel-gray metal that has the atomic number 83 in the periodic table in Group 15. It has the symbol Bi.

Beginner

Blackpowder

Black powder is a term used to describe gun powder a chemical that when discovered in china and a flame put near it would explode releasing a lot of energy.

Novice

Blast furnace

The blast furnace is a piece of industrial equipment used to extract iron from iron ore using carbon and heat

Novice

Bohr Model

The Bohr model refers to the treatment of electrons as particles that orbit the nucleus.

Beginner

Bohrium

Bohrium (Bh) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 107 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is a Transition metal in Group 7. It has the symbol Bh.

Beginner

Boiling point

Boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas. The particles have enough internal energy to overcome the bonds in the liquid.

Beginner

Bond

A bond is when an atom shares electrons or transfers electrons between each other meaning they are joined

Beginner

Bond angle

The bond angle is a measure of the angle between two bonds that is changed depending on the repulsion between lone pairs and bonded pairs helps to determine the shape of covalent compounds

Expert

Bond energy

Bond energy is the term used to describe the amount of energy required to break a bond attraction between two atoms or ions measured in kj/mol

Expert

Bond length

Bond length is the measure of the length from one atom to another in a bond. The larger the atom the longer the bonds

Expert

Bond strength

Bond strength is the term used to describe the amount of energy required to break a bond attraction between two atoms or ions

Expert

Bonded Pair

A bonded pair is the term used to describe a shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond

Expert

Boron

Boron (B) exists as either a brown powder or a crystalline silvery black solid. Is has the atomic number 4 in the periodic table and belongs in Group 13, its symbol is B. It is a metalloid and has both metal and non metal properties.

Beginner

Bravais lattice

A bravais lattice is the name given to the distinct shapes of lattices based on a mathematical system of vectors in directions

Expert

Brimstone

Brimstone is an old term used to describe the element sulphur and its smell commonly compared to the smell of hell.

Novice

Brittle

Brittle is used to describe a physical property where layers of atoms when moved across each other will break apart. Commonly in ionic lattices as the ions repel each other

Beginner

Bromine

Bromine (Br) is a red brown liquid non metal. It has the atomic number 35 in the periodic table. It is located in Group 17, the Halogens. It has the symbol Br.

Beginner

Brownian Motion

Brownian motion is a term used to describe the movement of small particles in random directions and was used as evidence to show that atoms existed due to their ability to collide with each other.

Expert

Cadmium

Cadmium (Cd) is a blue-white metal that has the atomic number 48 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 12 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Cd.

Beginner

Caesium

Caesium (Cs) is a soft gray coloured metal that has the atomic number 55 in the periodic table. It is an Alkali Metal and is located in Group 1 of the periodic table. it has the symbol Cs.

Beginner

Calcium

Calcium (Ca) is a silvery-white soft metal that has the atomic number 20 in the periodic table. It is an Alkaline Earth Metal and is located in Group 2 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ca.

Beginner

Californium

Californium (Cf) is a silvery-white colored radioactive metal that has the atomic number 98 in the periodic table. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Cf.

Beginner

Carbon

Carbon (C) exists as several allotropes, most commonly as Diamond or the gray-black solid Graphite. It has the atomic number 6 in the periodic table and belongs in Group 14. It is a non metal with the symbol C.

Beginner

Catalyst

A catalyst is a chemical that can take part in a reaction and speed the reaction up but is not used up itself

Novice

Cathode ray tube

The Cathode ray tube is a device which uses electrons being fired through a vacuum onto a screen. J.J Thomson used this to predict the mass of an electron and its existence as a particle smaller than the atom.

Expert

Cation

A cation is a positively charged ion

Novice

Central metal ion

The central metal ion is the metal ion at the centre of a complex usually with a positive charge and a transition metal element

Expert

Cerium

Cerium (Ce) is a iron-gray coloured metal that has the atomic number 58 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Ce.

Beginner

Chemical Symbol

A chemical symbol is the two or three letter abbreviation in the periodic table that represents the element in the periodic table. It is not always based on the name such as Iron which has the symbol Fe based on its latin name.

Beginner

Chemical properties

Chemical properties are the properties of how the element or compound reacts with other elements and compounds. Such as will it give off heat or light when it reacts.

Novice

Chlorine

Chlorine (Cl) exists as a yellow green gas with a pungent smell. It has the atomic number 17 in the periodic table and belongs in Group 17, the Halogens. It is a non metal with the symbol Cl.

Beginner

Chromium

Chromium (Cr) is a silver metal that has the atomic number 24 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 6 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Cr.

Beginner

Cobalt

Cobalt (Co) is a bluish-white metal that has the atomic number 27 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 9 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Co.

Beginner

Coloumbs law

Coloumbs law relates the effective nuclear charge and the radius of the atom and charge to measure the attractive force of a nucleus

Expert

Coloured compounds

Are compounds formed from transition metals that are able to have colour due to their electrons

Novice

Commodities

Commodities is the term used to describe large scale substances that are traded all around the world like metals, coil and oil

Novice

Complexes

A complex is the term given to a central metal ion that is surrounded by atoms that are able to donate lone pairs of electrons to form bonds to the central metal ion. Can have a different number of atoms/molecules bonded to it.

Expert

Compound

A compound is when two or more elements are joined together by a bond which forms when they share electrons or move them between each other

Beginner

Conduct electricity

Conduct electricity is a property of substances when electrons and charged ions can move which means an electrical current can flow

Novice

Coordinated bond

A coordinated bond is the term given to a lone pair of electrons is donated from one atom/molecule to another which can accept the lone pair forming a covalent bond

Expert

Coordination number

Coordination number is the number of ligands/molecules bonded to a central metal ion. This number determines the geometry, shape and other chemical properties of the complex

Expert

Copernicium

Copernicium (Cr) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 112 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is a Transition metal in Group 11. It has the symbol Rg.

Beginner

Copper

Copper is a reddish orange metal that has the atomic number 29 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 11 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Cu.

Beginner

Corpuscularism

Corpuscularism was a theory proposed by Descartes that all matter was composed of tiny particles.

Expert

Covalent bond

A covalent bond forms when two or more atoms share a pair of electrons to form a bond

Novice

Crystal

A crystal has a 3d arrangement of atoms highly ordered to produce 3d structures which have straight edges and flat faces

Novice

Curium

Curium (Cm) is a silvery-white colored radioactive metal that has the atomic number 96 in the periodic table. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Cm.

Beginner

D block metals

D block metals is a term given to metals in the transition metals section of the periodic table due to the d-orbital sub shells

Novice

D block splitting

D block splitting is a term used to describe when the 5 d block orbitals are split into two up and 3 down due to the effect of ligands, charges on ions and shapes producing a split energy level where electrons can easily be promoted

Expert

D shell

A d sell is a more complex subshell much like the P orbital but in 2 axis. Can also be between axis. Can hold 10 electrons in 5 pairs.

Expert

Darmstadtium

Darmstadtium (Ds) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 110 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is a Transition metal in Group 10. It has the symbol Ds

Beginner

Daughter nuclei

Daughter nuclei is the name given to two or more nucleuses that are formed from the a parent nucleus

Novice

Decay

Decay is a process of the nucleus breaking down into two smaller nuclei and releasing a radioactive particle

Novice

Degrees

Degrees celsius is a scale for measuring temperature devised by Swedish scientist Anders Celsius. He based 0c on the freezing point of water and 100c as the boiling point of water.

Beginner

Delocalised electrons

Delocalised electrons is the term used to describe electrons when they leave their shells and move between positive ions and are free to move

Novice

Delta

Delta is the symbol used to show a small partial charge on an atom which is the result of an uneven distribution of electrons

Expert

Density

Density is a measure of the number of particles as mass (measured in g) in a given volume of 3 dimensional space (measured in cm3)

Novice

Diamond

Diamond is a large covalent structure of carbon with 4 bonds between each atom forming a large lattice structure

Novice

Diatomic

A diatomic molecule is the term given to two atoms of the same element that are bonded covalently

Expert

Dimitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev was a Russian scientist who in 1869 proposed the first structure of the periodic table

Beginner

Dissolve

Dissolve is used to describe when a solid is put into a liquid and will form a solution

Novice

Dissolved

Dissolved is a term to describe when a substance is incorporated into a liquid or solvent

Expert

Distillation

Distillation is a separation technique that can be used to separate out liquids from each other by their boiling points.

Novice

Double bond

A double bond is the term used to describe the sharing of two pairs of electrons in a covalent bond

Expert

Dubnium

Dubnium (Db) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 105 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is a Transition metal in Group 5. It has the symbol Db.

Beginner

Ductile

Ductile is a term used to describe when layers in a metal can be pressured down into smaller layers that are next to each other turning them into a wire

Novice

Dysprosium

Dysprosium (Dy) is a silvery coloured metal that has the atomic number 66 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Dy.

Beginner

Effective nuclear charge

The effective nuclear charge is the attraction of the nucleus to the valence electron taking into account the number of protons and the number of inner shell electrons.

Novice

Einsteinium

Einsteinium (Es) is a silvery-white colored radioactive metal that has the atomic number 99 in the periodic table. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Es.

Beginner

Eka Aluminium

Eka aluminium was the term used to first describe the gap in the periodic table below aluminium before the element gallium was discovered

Novice

Electrical conductor

An electrical conductor has the ability to conduct electricity and carry an electrical current usually when electrons or ions can move

Beginner

Electrode

An electrode is a conductive part of an electrical circuit that is usually in contact with a non-metallic substance.

Expert

Electron

The electron is the smallest sub atomic particle that make up the atom. Has a negative charge and is located in shells that orbit the nucleus

Beginner

Electron affinity

Electron affinity is a measure of the amount of energy in kj/mol required to add one mole of electrons to an atom to create one mole of negatively charged ions

Expert

Electron configuration

The electron configuration is the numerical layout of electrons in the orbitals around the atom. Can be done simply for example lithium has 3 electrons and has 2 in the first shell (as this is the maximum) and 1 in the second shell giving it the configuration 2,1.

Novice

Electron diagram

An electron diagram is the drawing of electrons in their shells

Expert

Electronegativity

Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract electrons in its bond determined by the nuclear charge, number of protons and the number of shells.

Expert

Element

Elements are atoms with the same number of protons in the nucleus

Novice

Elixir

An elixir is a potion or mixture of liquids that was viewed as important to discover as it would cure diseases.

Novice

Endothermic

Endothermic is a term used to describe a chemical process where heat energy is taken in by chemicals and turned into chemical potential energy. Energy has to be put in to get the process/reaction to work an the temperature of the surroundings decreases

Expert

Energy levels

Energy levels is the term used when treating electrons as waves/particles we can treat them as energy levels. The sub orbitals s p d and f are in ascending energy levels with electrons further away from the nucleus being in higher energy levels

Expert

Erbium

Erbium (Er) is a silvery coloured metal that has the atomic number 68 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Er.

Beginner

Ernest Lawrence

Ernest Lawrence was an American scientist who is credited with inventing the first particle accelerator called a cyclotron

Novice

Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford was a British physicist who by experimenting with gold foil and alpha particles found that there was a large central mass at the centre of the atom with a positive charge.

Expert

Erwin Schrodinger

Erwin Schrodinger was an Austrian physicist who used mathematical models to enhance the Bohr model of the electron and created an equation to predicted the likelihood of finding an electron in a given position.

Beginner

Ethanol

Ethanol is a compound of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen and is used in alcoholic drinks and as a fuel due to it being easy to burn.

Novice

Europium

Europium (Eu) is a silvery-white coloured metal that has the atomic number 63 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Eu.

Beginner

Evaporation

Evaporation is when a liquid turns into a gas

Beginner

Excited

Excited is a term used to describe when an electron absorbs energy to promote itself to a higher energy level

Expert

Exothermic

Exothermic is a term used to describe a chemical process where heat energy is given out from the making of chemical bonds. When excess chemical energy is released as heat energy making the surroundings warmer increasing temperature.

Expert

Expanded periodic table

The expanded periodic table is the term given to the periodic table that includes the lanthanides and actinide seres and is wider than the traditional periodic table as it takes into account more periods and groups

Novice

F shell

The F shell is much more complicated than d orbitals and have a possible 7 quantum numbers so can be very varied in shapes. They can hold 14 electrons in 7 pairs

Expert

Fahrenheit

Fahrenheit is a scale for measuring temperature devised in 1724 by German scientist Daniel Fahrenheit which placed 0F as the temperature at which a brine solution ( a solution of water, ice and salt) freezes

Beginner

Fermium

Fermium (Fm) is a silvery-white colored radioactive metal that has the atomic number 100 in the periodic table. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Fm.

Beginner

Ferrous

Ferrous is a term used to describe any work which involves Iron. The symbol for iron is Fe this comes from the latin for iron which is Ferrum

Novice

Fixed position

A fixed position means that an atom does not move unless forced

Beginner

Flammability

Flammability is a measure of how easy it is for an element or compound to catch fire

Beginner

Flerovium

Flerovium (Fl) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 114 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is in Group 14. It has the symbol Fl.

Beginner

Fluorine

Fluorine (F) exists as a pale yellow gas with a pungent smell. It has the atomic number 9 in the periodic table and belongs in Group 17, the Halogens. It is a non metal with the symbol F.

Beginner

Forefather

A forefather is something that has come before and is usually the basis for some discoveries.

Novice

Francium

Francium (Fr) is thought to be a gray colored metal that has the atomic number 87 in the periodic table. It is an Alkali Metal with the symbol Fr and is located in Group 1 of the periodic table.

Beginner

Francois Lecoq de Boisbaudran

Francois Lecoq de Boisbaudran was a french scientist credited with discovering the element gallium

Novice

Frequency

Frequency is the number of waves per second. Measured in Hertz, the higher a frequency the more energy emitted

Expert

Full outer shell

A full outer shell is known as the noble gas configuration where the outer shell of an atom is energetically stable and contains 8 outer electrons

Novice

Gadolinium

Gadolinium (Gd) is a silvery-white coloured metal that has the atomic number 64 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Gd.

Beginner

Gallium

Gallium (Ga) is a silver metal that has the atomic number 31 in the periodic table. It is located in Group 13 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ga.

Beginner

Gamma

Gamma particles that are made of waves released from a nucleus when it breaks apart

Beginner

Gamma Wave

Gamma waves occur when a radioactive nuclei breaks down releasing a photon of energy as a wave. Very penetrating and can be stopped by lead and concrete but has a weak ionizing power

Novice

Gas

Particles in a gas are far apart and can move around a lot freely

Beginner

Gaseous

Gaseous is the term used to describe a substance in the gas phase

Expert

Geiger Marsden Experiment

The Geiger Marsden experiment was conducted by two research partners of Ernest Rutherford where alpha particles were fired at a sheet of gold foil and were deflected in all directions.

Expert

Geometry

Geometry is the shape of the complex of a metal ion at the centre surrounded by atoms/molecules called ligands that are bonded to them

Expert

Germanium

Germanium (Ge) is a grey metalloid that has the atomic number 32 in the periodic table. It is located in Group 14 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ge.

Beginner

Ghiorso

Albert Ghiorso was an American scientist whose research led to the discovery of 12 chemical elements

Novice

Giant covalent

Giant covalent structures is the term used to describe large non metallic strucutres that are made of many covalent bonds

Expert

Giant covalent structure

Giant covalent structures are made of many non metal atoms such as carbon that share covalent bonds

Novice

Gold

Gold (Au) is a soft gold coloured metal that has the atomic number 79 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 11. It has the symbol Au.

Beginner

Graphite

Graphite is a large covalent structure made of carbon with layers. Each carbon atom has 3 bonds between each.

Novice

Group

Groups are the columns of the periodic table where the elements are arranged vertically due to their similarities of properties.

Novice

Group 1

Group 1 elements are in the first group of the periodic table with similar properties of being soft and reacting violently with water

Beginner

Group 2

Group 2 alkaline earth metals are located in the group 2 of the periodic table and commonly react with water to form alkaline solutions

Novice

Groups

Groups are the columns of the periodic table with elements that are grouped together with similar properties

Beginner

Haematite

Haematite is the term used to describe the common ore of Iron. Iron is found in an ore bonded to Oxygen as Iron Oxide

Novice

Hafnium

Hafnium (Hf) is a silvery coloured metal that has the atomic number 72 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 4. It has the symbol Hf.

Beginner

Half life

Half life is a measurement of the time taken for half of the mass of a radioactive element to decay into smaller more stable elements

Novice

Halides

Halides are ionic compounds formed when metals react with halogens to form ionic compounds

Novice

Halogen

Halogens are located in group 17 they are strong smelling elements that are coloured and all non metals, they will react with metals.

Beginner

Halogens

Halogens are found in group 7 of the periodic table. Non metal elements that have 7 electrons in their outer shell and are often used for cleaning or sterilization.

Novice

Hassium

Hassium (Hs) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 108 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is a Transition metal in Group 8. It has the symbol Hs.

Beginner

Heisenberg

Werner Heisenberg was a German physicist who was a pioneer in the field of quantum mechanics. He devised the principle of uncertainty relating to the momentum and position of an electron.

Expert

Helium

Helium (He) is a colorless, odorless gas that has the atomic number 2 and the symbol He. It is a noble gas, non metal that is second most common element in the universe after Hydrogen.

Beginner

Hippocrates

Hippocrates is a famous Greek doctor who around 400BC promoted many advances in medicine

Novice

Holmium

Holmium (Ho) is a silvery coloured metal that has the atomic number 67 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Ho.

Beginner

Hydrocarbon

A hydrocarbon is the term given to a compound composed of just hydrogen and carbon.

Expert

Hydrogen

Hydrogen (H) is a tasteless, colorless, odorless gas and has the atomic number 1. It is a noble gas, non-metal and is the most abundant element in the universe.

Beginner

Hydroxides

A hydroxide is a compound that contains an oxygen and. hydrogen atom bonded together an ion to form the OH- ion which is known as the hydroxide ion

Novice

Hypothesise

To hypothesise is to think about and using knowledge to predict what will happen

Beginner

Immortality

Immortality is the term given to when a person would live forever and never die.

Novice

Imperfections

Imperfections is the term used when a structure of a crystal or 3d material has crystals or units that are very different causing changes in the 3d shape

Expert

Indium

Indium (In) is a silver-white metal that has the atomic number 49 in the periodic table. It is located in Group 13 of the periodic table. It has the symbol In.

Beginner

Inert

Inert is a term used to describe an element which will not react as it has a full outer shell of electrons

Novice

Inner shell

The inner shell are the electrons closest to the nucleus – usually the S and P shells due to their lower energy sub orbitals

Novice

Instantaneous dipole

An instantaneous dipole is the term given to a molecule when a dipole of uneven charges is created very quickly and randomly in a molecule

Expert

Intermolecular

The term intermolecular describes the space between molecules

Novice

Intermolecular forces

Intermolecular forces are temporary interactions between ions, atoms or compounds that are not considered to be sharing electrons.

Novice

Intramolecular

Intramolecular is the term used to describe the bond between the atoms such as covalent, ionic or metallic

Expert

Iodine

Iodine (I) is a purple grey solid non metal. It has the atomic number 53 in the periodic table. It is located in Group 17, the Halogens. It has the symbol I.

Beginner

Ion

An ion is the term used to describe an atom that has either lost or gained an electron so that it is charged

Expert

Ionic bond

An ionic bond forms when atoms transfer electrons to form positive and negative ions which attract to each other

Novice

Ionic compound

An ionic compound is a bond that forms between metals and non metals to form a large ionic lattice

Novice

Ionic radii

The ionic radii is a measure of the radius of a positive or negative ion formed from the gain or loss of electrons usually measured using xray crystallography

Expert

Ionic radius

The ionic radius is a measure of the radius of a positive or negative ion formed from the gain or loss of electrons usually measured using xray crystallography

Expert

Ionisation energy

Ionisation energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom creating a positvely charged ion

Novice

Ionising

Ionising is a term used to describe when an atom turns into an ion. Ionising radiation causes an atom to lose electrons

Novice

Ions

An ion forms when an atom loses or gains electrons to form a positive or negative particles due to the unbalanced number of protons

Novice

Iridium

Iridium (Ir) is a heavy white metal that has the atomic number 77 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 9. It has the symbol Ir.

Beginner

Iron

Iron (Fe) is a grey metal that has the atomic number 26 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 8 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Fe.

Beginner

Isotopes

Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons and the same number of protons. React chemically the same but have a different masses

Novice

John Newlands

John Newlands was a British scientist who divided 56 elements into groups

Beginner

Jabir Ibn Hayyan

Jabir Ibn Hayyan was a famous Islamic philosopher, scientist and scholar who discovered many different scientific techniques and chemicals in the 8th century.

Novice

John Dalton

John Dalton was an English chemist who proposed the idea of the atom as the smallest part of matter and studied gas ratios to prove its existence

Expert

Joseph Proust

Joseph Proust was French chemist who discovered that chemicals combine in whole number ratios. His work was mainly done reacting tin and other metals with oxygen

Expert

J.J Thomson

J Thomson was an English physicist who is credited with discovering the electron and theorising the first model of the atom to use sub atomic particles. He proposed the plum pudding model.

Expert

James Chadwick

James Chadwick was a British physicist who worked with Beryllium isotopes and alpha particles to produce neutral electrical charges which he termed a neutron.

Expert

Kelvin

Kelvin is a scale for measuring temperature commonly used in chemistry due to its use all around the world. It was devised by William Kelvin, a Scottish engineer. The scale uses absolute zero as its starting point.

Beginner

Kinetic energy

Kinetic energy is a measure of the amount of movement energy in atoms. Atoms that have a lot of kinetic energy tend to be gases and those that have little kinetic energy tend to be solids as they do not move a lot

Beginner

Kj/mol

kj/mol is the abbreviation of kilojoules per mole which is a term used to describe the amount of energy in kilojoules that is put into a number of moles of atoms

Expert

Krypton

Krypton (Kr) exists as a colourless, odourless gas and is chemically inert. It has the atomic number 36 in the periodic table and belongs in Group 18, the Noble Gases. It is a non metal with the symbol Kr.

Beginner

Lanthanide

The lanthanides are 15 elements with metallic character from atomic number 57 to 71 exhibiting metallic like properties.

Novice

Lanthanum

Lanthanum (La) is a soft silvery white coloured metal that has the atomic number 57 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol La.

Beginner

Lattice

A lattice is a 3D layout of atoms of similar sizes next to each other. They are tightly packed and in neat rows and columns

Beginner

Lattices

A lattice is a term given to an ordered arrangement of points in a 3D shape creating a regular arrangement of atoms and ions

Expert

Law of conservation of mass

The law of conservation of mass was devised by Antoine Lavoiser who discovered that when you react elements together to form compounds no mass is lost or gained between reactants and products

Expert

Lawrencium

Lawrencium (Lr) is a silvery-white colored radioactive metal that has the atomic number 103 in the periodic table. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Lr.

Beginner

Lead

Lead (Pb) is a soft gray metal that has the atomic number 82 in the periodic table in Group 14. It has the symbol Pb.

Beginner

Length relationships

The length relationship is the measured lengths of the sides of unit cells in a crystal lattice

Expert

Ligand

A ligand is a molecule or atom that can form a bond with a central metal ion, usually by donating a lone pair of electrons to form a coordinated bond

Expert

Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling was an American scientist who measured the tendency of atoms to attract electrons in a bond. He invented the Pauling scale

Expert

Liquid

Particles in a liquid are close together but can freely move around

Beginner

Lithium

Lithium (Li) is a silver-white colored metal that has the atomic number 3 in the periodic table. It is an Alkali Metal with the symbol Li and is located in Group 1 of the periodic table.

Beginner

Livermorium

Livermorium (Lv) is a radioactive element that has the atomic number 116 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is in Group 16. It has the symbol Lv.

Beginner

Lobes

Lobes refers to the shape of electron waves and the area of highest probability of where that electron as a particle would be found.

Beginner

London dispersion forces

London dispersion forces is the term given to weak inter molecular forces between molecules

Expert

Lone pair

A lone pair is a pair of electrons on an atom that are not involved in bonding

Expert

Lubricant

A lubricant is a substance that can be used to reduce friction between two surfaces

Novice

Luster

Luster is a term for a reflective surface that reflects light giving a shiny appearance.

Novice

Lutetium

Lutetium (Lu) is a silvery-white coloured metal that has the atomic number 71 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Lu.

Beginner

Magnesium

Magnesium (Mg) is a silver coloured metal that has the atomic number 12 in the periodic table. It is an Alkaline Earth Metal and is located in Group 2 of the periodic table, it has the symbol Mg.

Beginner

Malleable

Malleable describes when layers in a solid can slide over each other when a force is applied

Novice

Manganese

Manganese (Mn) is a grey white metal that has the atomic number 25 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 7 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Mn.

Beginner

Mass

Mass is the amount of substance that can be measured in grams or kilograms

Beginner

Matter

Matter is a term used to describe when all atoms are combined to make up large structures.

Beginner

Max Planck

Max Planck was a German physicist who discovered that energy that is emitted is released in small packets called quanta. He related the amount of energy released to the frequency of the wave.

Expert

Meitnerium

Meitnerium (Mt) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 109 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is a Transition metal in Group 9. It has the symbol Mt.

Beginner

Melting point

Melting point is the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid. The temperature when atoms have enough energy to over come their bonds and turn into a liquid.

Beginner

Mendelevium

Mendelevium (Md) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 101 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Md.

Beginner

Mercury

Mercury (Hg) is a liquid silver coloured metal that has the atomic number 80 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 12. It has the symbol Hg.

Beginner

Metallic

Metallic elements have metallic bonding and are located on the left hand side and in the middle of the periodic table

Novice

Metallic bonding

Metallic bonding is the bonding between metallic ions where the metallic atoms lose their electrons and form positive metal ions

Novice

Metalloid

A metalloid is another term for a semi metal. An element that does not have properties of metals or non metals but of both. For example they can be brittle but can also conduct electricity.

Beginner

Metallurgy

Metallurgy is the study of metals and their chemical and physical properties for use in industry, this often involves alloying and extraction

Novice

Metals

Metals are located on the left hand side of the periodic table and comprising a large part of the periodic table. Metal elements have metallic bonding where positive ions are held in sea of delocalized electrons.

Beginner

Mixture

Mixtures is a term given when different elements or compounds are in the same container or substance but are not chemically bonded

Beginner

Mole

A mole is the term used to describe the number of atoms in a substance. One mole is equal to 6.02x10^23 atoms

Expert

Molecule

A molecule is a pair of elements with the same number of protons bonded together

Novice

Molybdenum

Molybdenum (Mo) is a silvery-white metal that has the atomic number 42 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 6 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Mb.

Beginner

Moscovium

Moscovium (Mc) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 115 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is in Group 15. It has the symbol Mc.

Beginner

Multidentate

A multidentate ligand can form when more than 2 bonds with a central metal ion by donating more than one pair of electrons i.e EDTA

Expert

Neodymium

Neodymium (Nd) is a silvery white coloured metal that has the atomic number 60 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Nd.

Beginner

Neon

Neon (Ne) exists as a colourless, odourless gas and is chemically inert. It has the atomic number 10 in the periodic table and belongs in Group 18, the Noble Gases. It is a non metal with the symbol Ne.

Beginner

Neptunium

Neptunium (Np) is a silvery colored radioactive metal that has the atomic number 93 in the periodic table. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Np.

Beginner

Neutron

A neutron is a neutral sub atomic particle that makes up the nucleus with the proton

Beginner

Nickel

Nickel (Ni) is a silvery-white metal that has the atomic number 28 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 10 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ni.

Beginner

Niels Bohr

Niels Bohr was a Danish physicist who made many leaps in theoretical chemistry using mathematical modelling. He developed the model of electrons existing in shells or energy levels.

Expert

Nihonium

Nihonium (Nh) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 112 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is in Group 13. It has the symbol Nh.

Beginner

Niobium

Niobium (Nb) is a shiny white metal that has the atomic number 41 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 5 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Nb.

Beginner

Nitrogen

Nitrogen (N) exists as a colourless, odourless gas in the earth’s atmosphere. Comprising 79% of the earth atmosphere it is very abundant. It has the atomic number 7 in the periodic table and belongs in Group 15. It is a non metal. It’s symbol is N.

Beginner

Nobelium

Nobelium (No) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 102 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol No.

Beginner

Noble gases

Noble gases are very unreactive non metal elements found in group 18 of the periodic table. They do not react with other elements easily and are all gases.

Beginner

Non Polar

A non polar molecules is a molecule that has an electronegativity under 0.5 meaning the electrons are evenly shared between the two atoms

Expert

Non metallic

Non metallic elements are located on the right hand side of the periodic table with covalent bonding

Novice

Non metals

Non metals are located mainly on the right hand side of the periodic table and comprise of covalently bonded compounds. Non metals share electrons to have a full outer shell.

Beginner

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear fission is the process of splitting up large atoms to release heat energy to be used in the generation of electricity

Novice

Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear fusion is a process which occurs in. the sun. Hydrogen atoms under a lot of heat and pressure are forced together to make a larger atom of helium

Novice

Nuclear charge

Nuclear charge is the attraction exerted by the nucleus on electrons due to the positive charge of the protons and negative charge of the electron

Novice

Nuclei

Nuclei is the term given to a single nucleus of an atom

Novice

Nucleus

The nucleus is the term given to the centre of the atom comprising of the proton and neutron

Beginner

Oganesson

Oganesson (Og) is a radioactive element that has the atomic number 118 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is in Group 18. It has the symbol Og.

Beginner

Orbit

An orbit is the circular or dumbbell shaped motion that the electrons follow around the nucleus. Much like the planets orbiting the sun

Expert

Orbital

An orbital is the circular motion that the electrons follow around the nucleus. Much like the planets orbiting the sun

Novice

Ore

An ore is a compound found in the earths crust usually as a rock where metal elements are found combined with non metals

Novice

Orientated

Orientated is a. term used to describe the direction in which a. molecule faces

Expert

Osmium

Osmium (Os) is a hard fine black powder or blue-white metal that has the atomic number 76 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 8. It has the symbol Os.

Beginner

Outer shell

Outer electrons is the term given to the shell/energy level furthest from the nucleus containing the electron furthest from the nucleus

Novice

Oxidation

Oxidation is the term given to the process when an atom loses an electron to become a positively charged ion

Novice

Oxidation state

Oxidation state is the term used to describe the loss or gain of electrons of an element to produce a charged ion

Novice

Oxides

Oxides are ionic compounds that are formed when metals react with oxygen

Novice

Oxygen

Oxygen (O) exists as a colourless, odourless gas in the earth’s atmosphere. Comprising 21% of the earth atmosphere it is vital for life on earth. It has the atomic number 8 in the periodic table and belongs in Group 16. It is a non metal with the symbol O.

Beginner

P shell

A P shell is a dumbbell shaped shell in three axis creating 3 shells that can hold 6 electrons in 3 pairs

Expert

Packed

Packed is a term to describe when atoms are close to each other and there is little space between the atoms

Beginner

Palladium

Palladium (Pd) is a silver-white metal that has the atomic number 46 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 10 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Pd.

Beginner

Panacea

A panacea is an old word to describe a chemical or discovery that would cure all illnesses.

Novice

Paracelus

Paracelus was a 16th century Swiss philosopher who devised the theory of the three prime elements and linked them to human diseases.

Novice

Parent nucleus

Parent nucleus is the term given to the original nucleus at the start of the decay

Novice

Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine designed to speed up atoms before colliding them together to create new elements with a large mass

Novice

Pauli Exclusion principle

The Pauli Exclusion refers to the theory that each electron can only have a unique set of the 4 quantum numbers and no two electrons can have the same quantum numbers

Beginner

Pauling scale

The Pauling scale is a numerical measure of the tendency of an atom to attract electrons in a bonded pair

Expert

Peak

A peak is the highest point on a transverse wave.

Beginner

Period

Periods are the rows of the periodic table. As you go along periods the number of protons and neutrons increases and the number of electron shells remains the same.

Novice

Periodic table

The periodic table is the collection of elements arranged by atomic number

Novice

Periods

Periods are the rows of the periodic table that from left to right increase in order of mass

Beginner

Permenant pole

A permanent pole is the result of a difference in electronegativites over 0.5 on the pauling scale so the distribution of electrons on a molecule are uneven

Expert

Pharmaceutical company

A pharmaceutical company is a a company that designs and makes drugs to be used for medical purposes

Novice

Philosophers

A philosopher is a term given to thinkers who in history came up with ideas and theories about how things worked but often did not have evidence.

Novice

Phosphorus

Phosphorus (P) is most commonly a white-yellow solid non metal in Group 15 of the periodic table. It has the atomic number 15. It has the symbol P.

Beginner

Photon

A photo is a particle/wave of energy that is emitted from complexes when an electron that was promoted in energy levels comes back down to the energy level it started in

Expert

Physical property

Physical properties are characteristics of an element or compound that are physical such as melting points and boiling points

Novice

Platinum

Platinum (Pt) is a heavy white metal that has the atomic number 78 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 10. It has the symbol Pt.

Beginner

Plum Pudding Model

The plum pudding model was suggested as the first atomic model by J.J Thomson where he suggested that the atom was a sea of positive charge that surrounded small negative electrons

Expert

Plutonium

Plutonium (Pu) is a silvery colored radioactive metal that has the atomic number 94 in the periodic table. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Pu.

Beginner

Polar

A polar molecule is a molecule that has an electronegativity between 0.5 and 1.6 showing that the electrons are unevenly distributed

Expert

Polonium

Polonium (Po) is a silvery-gray metal that has the atomic number 84 in the periodic table in Group 16. It has the symbol Po.

Beginner

Post-Transitional Metal

The post-transition metals are the ones found between the transition metals (to the left) and the metalloids (to the right). They include aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), tin (Sn), lead (Pb) and bismuth (Bi).

Beginner

Potassium

Potassium (K) is a silver-white coloured metal that has the atomic number 19 in the periodic table. It is an Alkali Metal and is located in Group 1 of the periodic table. it has the symbol K.

Beginner

Praseodymium

Praseodymium (Pr) is a silvery white coloured metal that has the atomic number 59 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Pr.

Beginner

Precious

A precious metal is a metal that has a high value commonly elements like gold, silver and platinum.

Novice

Pressure

Pressure is a measure of the force exerted by a liquid or gas on its container

Beginner

Promethium

Promethium (Pm) is a rare metal that has the atomic number 61 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Pm.

Beginner

Properties

Properties are characteristics or features of an element or compound an example could be the melting and boiling point these are the temperature at which they change from a solid to a liquid

Beginner

Protactinium

Protactinium (Pa) is a shiny silver colored radioactive metal that has the atomic number 91 in the periodic table. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Pa.

Beginner

Proton

A proton is a positive particle that makes up the atom in the nucleus with a positive charge

Beginner

Quanta

Quanta is the plural term for quantum which means a small packet of energy. For example a photon is defined as a small packet of energy of light.

Expert

Quantum Mechanics

The term quantum mechanics refers to energy levels and the theoretical area of physics and chemistry where mathematics is used to explain the behaviour of subatomic particles.

Beginner

Quantum Numbers

Quantum numbers is a term used to describe the assigning of numbers to electrons as a mathematical function to describe their momentum and energy.

Beginner

Quantum particle

A quantum particles is the smallest physical particle that can exist without being broken down. Electrons are quantum particles as they cannot be broken down further. Quantum particles like electrons have properties that make them unique such as their spin and energy level

Expert

Quicksilver

Quicksilver is the name given to the element mercury due to its state as a liquid when at room temperature and being a silver colour.

Novice

Radioactive

Radioactive is the term given to an element or substance that will release particles as radiation as it is unstable and begins to break down

Novice

Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay is when a large unstable nucleus breaks down into two smaller nuclei releasing radiation in the form of alpha beta or gamma to release energy and become more stable

Novice

Radioactivity

Radioactivity is a property of some elements where the nucleus breaks down and turns into smaller parts to release energy

Beginner

Radium

Radium (Ra) is a silvery-white colored metal that has the atomic number 88 in the periodic table. It is an Alkaline earth Metal with the symbol Ra and is located in Group 2 of the periodic table.

Beginner

Radon

Radon (Rn) is a colourless, odourless, radioactive gas non-metal that has the atomic number 86 in the periodic table in Group 18. It has the symbol Rn.

Beginner

Reactivity

How an element or compound will easily gain or lose electrons when interacting with other elements. Reactivity can also be a measure of how violent a reaction is giving our heat or light.

Novice

Reduction

Reduction is the term given to the process when an atom gains an electron to become a negatively charged on

Novice

Regular arrangement

Regular arrangement describes the ordered layout of atoms in the same space of a lattice with high orders of symmetry

Expert

Regular/Ordered

Regular/ordered are terms to describe how atoms are arranged and laid out usually meaning they are in layers, the same size and in neat rows

Beginner

Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass is the mass of all isotopes compared to the mass of 1/12th mass of carbon 12

Novice

Rene Descartes

Rene Descartes was a famous mathematician and philosopher of the 16th century who hypothesised the theory of corpuscularism about the atom

Repeating unit

A repeating unit is a 3d shape which is copied and repeated over and over again exactly the same

Expert

Repulsion

Repulsion is when two charges that are the same come into contact they prefer to be further away from each other so push each other away. For example when two electrons come close to each other the negative charges cause repulsion

Novice

Resistivity

Resistivity is the ability of a substance to prevent the flow of electrical current and charge, the structure will usually have fewer electrons and large atoms causing collisions when an electrical current is applied

Novice

Rhenium

Rhenium (Re) is a silvery-white coloured metal that has the atomic number 75 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 7. It has the symbol Re.

Beginner

Rhodium

Rhodium (Rh) is a brittle silver-white metal that has the atomic number 45 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 9 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Rh.

Beginner

Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle was an English philosopher who is considered as the first chemist due to his experimental techniques who discovered the link between changing a gases pressure and its volume.

Novice

Robert Brown

Robert Brown was a Scottish scientist who observed small particles in solution moving randomly. His theory came to be known as Brownian motion

Expert

Roentgenium

Roentgenium (Rg) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 111 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is a Transition metal in Group 11. It has the symbol Rg.

Beginner

Room temperature

Room temperature is the temperature recorded when a thermometer is left in a room usually around 22-25 degrees

Beginner

Rotational symmetry

Rotational symmetry is a property of a shape when it looks the same after it has been rotated or turned

Expert

Rubidium

Rubidium (Rb) is a silver-white coloured metal that has the atomic number 37 in the periodic table. It is an Alkali Metal and is located in Group 1 of the periodic table. it has the symbol Rb.

Beginner

Ruthenium

Ruthenium (Ru) is a brittle silver-gray metal that has the atomic number 44 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 8 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ru.

Beginner

Rutherfordium

Rutherfordium (Rf) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 104 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is a Transition metal in Group 4. It has the symbol Rf.

Beginner

S shell

An S shell is a spherical shaped shell that can hold two electrons with opposite spin

Expert

Samarium

Samarium (Sm) is a silvery coloured metal that has the atomic number 62 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Sm.

Beginner

Saturated

Saturated is term given to a solution that has reached the point at which no more solute can be dissolved in the solvent

Expert

Scandium

Scandium (Sc) is a silvery-white metal that has the atomic number 21 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 3 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Sc.

Beginner

Scientific community

The scientific community is the collection of world wide scientists who communicate and collaborate on different scientific projects

Novice

Seaborg

Glenn Seaborg was an American physicist who is credited with discovering many synthetic elements for which he was awarded the nobel prize for chemistry

Novice

Seaborgium

Seaborgium (Sg) is a radioactive metal that has the atomic number 106 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is a Transition metal in Group 6. It has the symbol Sg.

Beginner

Selenium

Selenium (Se) is a grey non metal that can also exist as a red allotrope. It has the atomic number 34 in the periodic table. It is located in Group 16 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Se.

Beginner

Semi Metal

Semi metals are elements that has properties of metals and non metals. They might have low melting and boiling points but also conduct electricity

Beginner

Semi conductors

Semi conductors is a term to describe metalloids that are able to conduct a current when electrical energy is applied due to the movement of electrons but the conductivity measurements are not as high as metals due to fewer electrons to carry a charge or a less ordered structure.

Novice

Separation

Separation is a term to describe the distance between particles

Beginner

Shell

The shell is the path that electrons follow outside the nucleus. Shells can be considered as energy levels and the further away from the nucleus the higher in energy.

Novice

Shielding

Shielding is the effect of inner shell electrons close to the nucleus reducing the nuclear charge on the valence electron.

Novice

Silicon

Silicon (Si) is a crystalline blue-grey solid with a metallic appearance. It is a metalloid that has the atomic number 14 in the periodic table. It is in Group 14 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Si.

Beginner

Silver

Silver (Ag) is a silver metal that has the atomic number 47 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 11 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ag.

Beginner

Simple covalent

Simple covalent bonded compounds that have low melting and boiling points and weak intermolecular forces. Simple covalent compounds share a pair of electrons and there are not many atoms bonded together.

Expert

Simple covalent bonding

Covalently bonded compounds that have low melting and boiling points and weak intermolecular forces. Simple molecules not bonded together

Novice

Single bond

A single bond is the term used to. describe a shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond

Expert

Sodium

Sodium (Na) is a silver-white coloured metal that has the atomic number 11 in the periodic table. It is an Alkali Metal and is located in Group 1 of the periodic table. it has the symbol Na.

Beginner

Solid

Particles in a solid are closely packed together and have a regular arrangement

Beginner

Solubility

Solubility is a measure of how much of a solute you can put into a solvent before no more will be dissolved

Expert

Solubility equilbrium

Solubility equilibrium is the point at which no more solute can be dissolved into a solvent and it is described as saturated

Expert

Soluble

Soluble is a word used to describe the property of a substance that allows it to be dissolved into a liquid and form an aqueous solution

Novice

Solute

A solute is a solid, gas or liquid which is going to be dissolved

Expert

Solution

A solution is a term given to the mix of a solute and solvent

Expert

Solvent

A solvent is a liquid substance that can dissolve a solid

Novice

Spin

Spin is a property of electrons when in energy levels they will either be spin up or spin down

Expert

States

States are the form an element or substance exists in usually a solid liquid or gas

Beginner

Steel

Steel is a term used to describe an alloy of iron and carbon and is a mixture of different atoms of different sizes meaning the steel is much stronger

Novice

Strong nuclear force

The strong nuclear force is the attractive force between protons and neutrons that keeps them together in the nucleus

Novice

Strontium

Strontium (Sr) is a silvery-yellow soft metal that has the atomic number 38 in the periodic table. It is an Alkaline Earth Metal and is located in Group 2 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Sr.

Beginner

Sub atomic

Sub atomic is a term used to describe parts of the atom that are the smaller than the atom itself, the proton neutron and electron

Beginner

Sub orbitals

Sub orbitals are the orbitals with the S P D and F shells that have their own unique quantum numbers and spin patterns when electrons are treated as waves

Expert

Sublimation

Sublimation is when a solid turns directly into a gas

Beginner

Subshells

Subshells are the broken down 3d structure of the electrons and the path they take around the nucleus. Each subshell can occupy a different space and arrangement as electrons are treated as waves. Each subshell has a different path for the electron, different energy level and different number of electrons it can hold

Expert

Sulphur

Sulfur (S) a yellow solid non metal in Group 16 of the periodic table. It is brittle and crystalline at room temperature. It has the atomic number 16. It has the symbol S.

Beginner

Synthetic element

Synthetic elements are elements that do not occur naturally in the universe and have to be created in a lab or through nuclear experiments in a cyclotron

Novice

Tantalum

Tantalum (Ta) is a gray coloured metal that has the atomic number 73 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 5. It has the symbol Ta.

Beginner

Tarnish

Tarnish is a term given as a property of elements where the shiney surface easily loses its shine due to the metal reacting with oxygen in oxidation

Novice

Technetium

Technetium (Tc) is a silvery-gray metal that has the atomic number 43 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 7 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Tc.

Beginner

Tellurium

Tellurium (Te) is a silver-white semi metal that has the atomic number 52 in the periodic table. It is located in Group 16 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Te.

Beginner

Temperature

Temperature is a measure of heat energy this is the amount of movement energy in a substance that can be measured using a thermometer

Beginner

Temporary dipole

A temporary dipole occurs when electrons on a molecules are temporarily unevenly distributed on a molecule creating small areas of positive and negative charge

Expert

Tennessine

Tennessine (Ts) is a radioactive element that has the atomic number 117 in the periodic table, its appearance is not fully known due to the minuscule amounts produced of it. It is in Group 17. It has the symbol Ts.

Beginner

Terbium

Terbium (Tb) is a silvery-gray coloured metal that has the atomic number 65 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Tb.

Beginner

Thallium

Thallium (Tl) is a soft gray metal that has the atomic number 81 in the periodic table in Group 13. It has the symbol Tl.

Beginner

Thorium

Thorium (Th) is a silvery-white colored radioactive metal that has the atomic number 90 in the periodic table. It is an Actinoid Metal with the symbol Th.

Beginner

Thulium

Thulium (Tm) is a silvery coloured metal that has the atomic number 69 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Tm.

Beginner

Tin

Tin (Sn) is a silver-white metal that has the atomic number 50 in the periodic table. It is located in Group 14 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Sn.

Beginner

Titanium

Titanium (Ti) is a silver metal that has the atomic number 22 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 4 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ti.

Beginner

Transition metals

Transition metals are the central section of the periodic table containing the majority of the metals. Also have d sub orbitals producing certain chemical properties

Beginner

Transmutation

Transmutation is term used to describe the changing of one metal into another.

Novice

Trough

A trough is the lowest point on a transverse wave.

Beginner

Tungsten

Tungsten (W) is a steel-gray coloured metal that has the atomic number 74 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 6. It has the symbol W.

Beginner

Uncertainty Principle

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is used to describe the relationship between the momentum and position of an electron. Where by if the exact position of the electron is known the momentum will be uncertain.

Expert

Unit cell

A unit cell is a single unit of atoms that have the same overall symmetry and can be used to build up a total crystal lattice with the repetition of these units

Expert

Unknown Elements

Unknown elements (or transactinides) are the heaviest elements of the periodic table. These are meitnerium (Mt, atomic number 109), darmstadtium (Ds, atomic number 110), roentgenium (Rg, atomic number 111), nihonium (Nh, atomic number 113), moscovium (Mc, atomic number 115), livermorium (Lv, atomic number 116) and tennessine (Ts, atomic number 117).

Beginner

Unreactive

Unreactive describes an element or atom that will not change because of another as they are quite stable

Novice

Uranium

Uranium is the name of an element that is radioactive and unstable due to its high mass. it is used in the production of nuclear power

Novice

Vacuum

A vacuum exists when all particles have been removed from a container creating a space with no particles in.

Expert

Valence electron

The valence electron is the outermost electron of an atom

Novice

Vanadium

Vanadium (V) is a bright white soft metal that has the atomic number 23 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 5 of the periodic table. It has the symbol V.

Beginner

Vibrational Modes

Vibrational modes is a term used to describe the constant motion in a molecule. Usually these are vibrations, rotations and translations.

Beginner

Vibrations

Vibrations happen when movement energy in atoms causes small movements of atoms from side to side causing the energy to move through more atoms

Beginner

Visible region

Visible region is a term used to describe the section of the electromagnetic spectrum where colour can be seen

Expert

Volume

Volume is a measure of 3 dimensional space that a substance can occupy measured in cm3. Volume is used to measure gases, solids, and liquids.

Beginner

Wave

A wave is a term in chemistry to describe when electrons can be treated as waves due to their properties and energy

Expert

Wavelength

Wavelength is a measure of the peak to peak of a wave. The wavelength of light differs in the visible section from red to purple measured in nanometers nm

Expert

X ray crystallography

Xray crystallography is a technique to image atoms and ions by bombarding them with Xrays and creating images of the nucleus and electrons

Expert

Xenon

Xenon (Xe) exists as a colourless, odourless gas and is chemically inert. It has the atomic number 54 in the periodic table and belongs in Group 18, the Noble Gases. It is a non metal with the symbol Xe.

Beginner

Ytterbium

Ytterbium (Yb) is a silvery coloured metal that has the atomic number 70 in the periodic table. It is a Lanthanide metal. It has the symbol Yb.

Beginner

Yttrium

Yttrium (Y) is a silvery metal that has the atomic number 39 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 3 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Y.

Beginner

Zinc

Zinc (Zn) is a bluish-silver metal that has the atomic number 30 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 12 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Zn.

Beginner

Zirconium

Zirconium (Zr) is a gray white metal that has the atomic number 40 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 4 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Zr.

Beginner

Zodiac

The signs of the zodiac are the star signs made by the stars in the sky that according to astrology are related to a persons birth and their personality

Novice