The abundance of elements in the universe and on earth is a measure of how much in terms of mass or percentage of that element is naturally occurring. Some elements in the universe such as hydrogen and helium, very basic elements make up large amounts of matter in the universe. Where as rare elements like francium and caesium are much less abundant and rare.
Chemical properties of a substance are a way of measuring its reactivity an the way it interacts with other atoms to form compounds.
Elements are all around us in the everyday world. In this section you will explore how the periodic table relates to our everyday life and how we use this information to relate the elements around us to our lives.
All elements have differing physical properties. Some of these physical properties are appearance, melting point, boiling point, density, solubility and texture.
Reactivity is a measure of how easily an element will combine with other elements to form compounds. Some elements are unreactive and need energy putting in others will react spontaneously and easily.
The periods of the periodic table are the rows that run from left to right in the periodic table. The elements are not arranged in these because of similar properties but because of their increasing atomic number from left to right.
Elements names and symbols are used to identify the different elements of the periodic table. In this section you will explore why elements are named the way they are and also the importance of symbols of these elements and how they are used in the periodic table.
Elements compounds and mixtures are all unique combinations of different atoms in different ways.
Some elements have to be made in the lab as they cannot exist in the natural world like most elements. These elements sometimes require special conditions and equipment to force them to decay or force two different nuclei together.
Alchemy is a term used to describe the historical study of elements and matter with the goal of creating an elixir for immortality or trying to change metals into more precious metals.
Alchemy whilst being the study of such wild theories as the transmutation of metals and prolonging of life also had many useful origins of chemistry today from drug design to experimental techniques we still use in the lab today.
Atoms make up all matter around us, they are the smallest part of all things. Atoms in the periodic table all have different numbers of protons and are known as elements and they can be combined to make compounds and molecules
Covalent bonding is the bonding found in non metals, involving the sharing of a pair of electrons or more between the atoms.
Groups in the periodic table are the columns where elements with similar properties are found grouped together.
The Metalloids is the term given to the elements in the periodic table that exist between metals and non metals on the right hand side. These are elements that exhibit both properties of metals and non metals.