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Metallic Bonding

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Metallic bonding is the bonding found in metals, positive metal ions surrounded by a sea of delocalized electrons.

Metals from Group 1 right through the transition metals all have the same type of bonding. Metallic bonds are formed when the metal atoms lose their electrons from their shells and share them amongst the larger metallic structure. The electron are said to be delocalised. They are still attracted to the metal atoms as the metal atoms have now become metal ions with a positive charge.


As the electrons are free to move this means that metals can conduct electricity. Metal ions are also fixed in place usually in a crystal arrangement and have a very ordered shape. Because of this they are often formed in layers and are malleable and ductile. This means that when a force is applied the layers of atoms slide over one another and it can be hammered into a different shape without breaking. When metals are als pressured and drawn they can form wires, this is because they are ductile. The layers of atoms can stretch alongside each other.

Terms in section
Malleable

Malleable describes when layers in a solid can slide over each other when a force is applied

Ductile

Ductile is a term used to describe when layers in a metal can be pressured down into smaller layers that are next to each other turning them into a wire

Crystal

A crystal has a 3d arrangement of atoms highly ordered to produce 3d structures which have straight edges and flat faces

Metallic bonding

Metallic bonding is the bonding between metallic ions where the metallic atoms lose their electrons and form positive metal ions

Transition metals

Transition metals are the central section of the periodic table containing the majority of the metals. Also have d sub orbitals producing certain chemical properties

Delocalised electrons

Delocalised electrons is the term used to describe electrons when they leave their shells and move between positive ions and are free to move

Metals

Metals are located on the left hand side of the periodic table and comprising a large part of the periodic table. Metal elements have metallic bonding where positive ions are held in sea of delocalized electrons.

Ions

An ion forms when an atom loses or gains electrons to form a positive or negative particles due to the unbalanced number of protons

Atom

An atom is the smallest particle that makes up all matter

Electron

The electron is the smallest sub atomic particle that make up the atom. Has a negative charge and is located in shells that orbit the nucleus

Shell

The shell is the path that electrons follow outside the nucleus. Shells can be considered as energy levels and the further away from the nucleus the higher in energy.

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An Overview of Bonding

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Covalent Bonding

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