All elements have differing physical properties depending on their bonding and their electronic structure. These properties very often determine their relationship with temperatures, textures and other substances when they are dissolved. Some of these physical properties are appearance, melting point, boiling point, density, solubility and texture. These properties differ from the metals to non metals but are usually quite similar in groups due to elements being grouped based on their similar physical and chemical properties. For example all group 1 metals are less dense than water so will float on water and are all soft metals so they can be cut with a knife despite having metallic bonds. A similar pattern can be seen in the group 17 non metals, the halogens. All of the halogens are colored elements and they all have low melting and boiling points due to their weak intermolecular forces.
Melting point is the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid. The temperature when atoms have enough energy to over come their bonds and turn into a liquid.
Boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas. The particles have enough internal energy to overcome the bonds in the liquid.
Density is a measure of the number of particles as mass (measured in g) in a given volume of 3 dimensional space (measured in cm3)
Solubility is a measure of how much of a solute you can put into a solvent before no more will be dissolved