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Ionic Bonding

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Ionic bonding is the bonding formed when metals and non metals transfer electrons creating oppositely charged ions.

Ionic bonding is not found directly in the periodic table as it is usually the formation of a compound of a metal and non metal that leads to the transfer of electrons and formation of ions.


A good example is sodium in group 1. Sodium has 1 electron in its outer shell that if it gets rid of will lead to it having a full outer shell of electrons in the next shell. This electron is transferred to chlorine. Chlorine as an atom has 7 electrons in its outer shell requiring 1 more to form a full outer shell. This full outer shell means chlorine then has 7 of its own electrons and 1 from sodium. This movement of electrons from sodium creates a positively charged sodium ion and the gaining of an electron by chlorine leads to the formation of a negatively charged chloride ion. As the sodium ion has a positive charge and the chloride ion has a negative charge they are attracted as they are oppositely charged. The oppositely charged ions build up into 3D arrangement of ions with each positive ion bonded to a negative ion over and over repeating. This is known as an ionic lattice.



Terms in section
Ionic bond

An ionic bond forms when atoms transfer electrons to form positive and negative ions which attract to each other

Ions

An ion forms when an atom loses or gains electrons to form a positive or negative particles due to the unbalanced number of protons

Lattice

A lattice is a 3D layout of atoms of similar sizes next to each other. They are tightly packed and in neat rows and columns

Full outer shell

A full outer shell is known as the noble gas configuration where the outer shell of an atom is energetically stable and contains 8 outer electrons

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