Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals


The Group 2 Alkaline earth metals are the 2nd group in the periodic table and are just before the transition metals. They are all similar in their color of silvery/white metals and react with water to form alkaline solutions. They are however not as reactive as the group 1 metals as they have 2 valence electrons instead of 1.

Much like the Group 1 Alkali metals the Group 2 Alkaline earth metals easily lose their valence electrons to form 2+ ions. Whilst not as reactive as the group 1 metals group 2 metals still need to lose 2 valence electrons and have relatively low ionisation energies. Group 2 metals will readily react with halogens and oxygen to form halides and oxides which are usually white or colourless salts. The oxides of the alkaline earth metals are basic and have a wide application in industry due to their strong basic nature. They follow the same pattern as the group 1 metals increasing in reactivity down the group due to the increasing distance of the valence electron from the nucleus and larger number of shells.

Terms in section
Alkali metals

Alkali metals are located in group 1 of the periodic table. Have a single valence electron which is easily lost from the outer shell. Alkali metals react readily with water to form hydroxides and alkaline pH solutions.

Group 2

Group 2 alkaline earth metals are located in the group 2 of the periodic table and commonly react with water to form alkaline solutions

Alkaline Earth Metals

Alkaline earth metals is the second most reactive group of elements in the periodic table. They are found in group 2 of the periodic table (formally known as group IIA).

Valence electron

The valence electron is the outermost electron of an atom


An ion forms when an atom loses or gains electrons to form a positive or negative particles due to the unbalanced number of protons

Ionisation energy

Ionisation energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom creating a positvely charged ion


Halogens are found in group 7 of the periodic table. Non metal elements that have 7 electrons in their outer shell and are often used for cleaning or sterilization.


Halides are ionic compounds formed when metals react with halogens to form ionic compounds


Oxides are ionic compounds that are formed when metals react with oxygen


Group 1: The Alkali Metals


The Transition Metals