Elements
13

Al

Aluminium

Aluminium (Al) is a silver coloured metal often tarnished by oxidation that has the atomic number 13 in the periodic table. It is in Group 13 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Al.

Aluminium makes up 8% of the earth’s land mass and is a relatively abundant metal. It is found in the earth’s crust bonded to oxygen in the ore Bauxite. Aluminium is extracted from Bauxite using electrolysis as it is more reactive than Carbon. Aluminium is most commonly used in construction and containers as it is lightweight and strong. Its most common use is in the construction of cars and aircraft. Aluminium whilst strong is most commonly alloyed to other metals to increase its strength and still maintain its light weight properties. Whilst Aluminium has been known as the compound Alum (a sulfate salt of Aluminium) since the 5th century and during the Middle ages it was not until 1825 that the Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted managed to isolate the metal from its ore. It is located in Group 13 as a metallic solid at room temperature, it is relatively light weight and strong. It has a melting point of 660°c and a boiling point of 2470°c.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Aluminium?

Aluminium has a Melting Point of 660.32°F, meaning at 660.32°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Aluminium?

Aluminium has a Boiling Point of 2518.85°F, meaning at 2518.85°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Aluminium?

Aluminium's Electronegativty is 1.61. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Aluminium?

Aluminium has a Heat of Vaporization of 293.4 kJ/mol.

Uses

Used for many purposes from airplanes to beverage cans. Too soft in its pure form so less than 1% of silicon or iron is added, which hardens and strengthens it.

Sources

Never occurs in free form. Obtained by electrolysis from bauxite (Al2O3).

13
Protons
13
Electrons
14
Neutrons

Al

Element Symbol
Al
Atomic Weight
26.982
Atomic Number
13
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
660.32
°C
Boiling Point
2518.85
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
293.4
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Cubic: Face centered
Thermoconductivity
2.37
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,3
Group
Post-Transition Metal
Period
3
Block
P Block
Orbitals
[Ne] 3s2 3p1
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
23.1 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.18 Å
Density at 293K
2.702 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
0.377 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
5.9858 V
Second Ionization Potential
18.828 V
Third Ionization Potential
28.447 V
Ionic Radius
.54 (+3) Å
Oxydation States
3
Lattice Parameter
4.0497 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
24.4869 Å
Pronounced

ah-LOO-men-em

Discovered by

Hans Christian Oersted

Discovery date

1825

Orbital configuration
2,8,3

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Post-Transition Metals

204.38
81

Tl

Thallium
114.818
49

In

Indium
69.723
31

Ga

Gallium
209
84

Po

Polonium
207.2
82

Pb

Lead
118.71
50

Sn

Tin
208.98
83

Bi

Bismuth
The post-transition metals are the ones found between the transition metals (to the left) and the metalloids (to the right). They include aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), tin (Sn), lead (Pb) and bismuth (Bi).
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