Elements
32

Ge

Germanium

Germanium (Ge) is a grey metalloid that has the atomic number 32 in the periodic table. It is located in Group 14 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ge.

Germanium like Gallium was an element predicted by Dimitri Mendeleev through his work on the periodic table looking at tin and silicon. It was discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886 from a silver ore sample. It was named Germanium after its countries founder’s origin, Germany. Germanium being a semi-metal is crystalline and brittle but is also a semiconductor. Unlike most solids it also expands when it freezes. Germanium is used as a transistor due to its semiconducting ability and also used in building circuits. Germanium is not naturally occurring in the earth’s crust it is found in the ore Germanite. It is located in Group 14 and it has a melting point of 938°c and a boiling point of 2833°c being a solid at room temperature.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Germanium?

Germanium has a Melting Point of 937.4°F, meaning at 937.4°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Germanium?

Germanium has a Boiling Point of 2830°F, meaning at 2830°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Germanium?

Germanium's Electronegativty is 2.01. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Germanium?

Germanium has a Heat of Vaporization of 330.9 kJ/mol.

Uses

Widely used in semiconductors. It is a good semiconductor when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic, gallium, and antimony.

Sources

Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead.

32
Protons
32
Electrons
41
Neutrons

Ge

Element Symbol
Ge
Atomic Weight
72.63
Atomic Number
32
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
937.4
°C
Boiling Point
2830
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
330.9
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Cubic: Face centered
Thermoconductivity
0.599
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,18,4
Group
Metalloid
Period
4
Block
P Block
Orbitals
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
5.7 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.22 Å
Density at 293K
5.323 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
1.45e-8 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
7.900 V
Second Ionization Potential
15.934 V
Third Ionization Potential
34.22 V
Ionic Radius
.53 (+4) Å
Oxydation States
(4),2
Lattice Parameter
5.677 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
--
Pronounced

jer-MAY-ni-em

Discovered by

Clemens Winkler

Discovery date

1886

Orbital configuration
2,8,18,4

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Metalloids

127.6
52

Te

Tellurium
121.76
51

Sb

Antimony
74.922
33

As

Arsenic
28.085
14

Si

Silicon
10.811
5

B

Boron
Metalloids are the chemical elements with the properties intermediate between those of typical metals and nonmetals. There is neither standard definition of a metalloid nor agreement on elements classified as such.
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