Elements
40

Zr

Zirconium

Zirconium (Zr) is a gray white metal that has the atomic number 40 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 4 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Zr.

Zirconium is named after the mineral Zircon which draws its name from the Persian ‘zargun’ which means gold like. Zirconium was mentioned in biblical writings but it was not until 1789 when Martin Heinrich Klaproth analysed a sample from Sri Lanka identifying an element he called Zirkonerde. It was Humphrey Davy who tried to isolate Zirconium using electrolysis in 1808 but it was in 1824when Jons Jacob Berzelius heated Zirconium Fluoride with iron to isolate the Zirconium. Zirconium is used to produce surgical equipment due to its high resistance and is used in nuclear fuel supplies. It is located in Group 4 as a Transition metal. It has a melting point of 1855°c and a boiling point of 4377°c.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Zirconium?

Zirconium has a Melting Point of 1852°F, meaning at 1852°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Zirconium?

Zirconium has a Boiling Point of 4409°F, meaning at 4409°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Zirconium?

Zirconium's Electronegativty is 1.33. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Zirconium?

Zirconium has a Heat of Vaporization of 58.2 kJ/mol.

Uses

Used in alloys such as zircaloy which is used in nuclear applications since it does not readily absorb neutrons. Also baddeleyite is used in lab crucibles. Used in high-performance pumps and valves. Clear zircon (ZrSiO4) is a popular gemstone.

Sources

Found in many minerals such as zircon and baddeleyite.

40
Protons
40
Electrons
51
Neutrons

Zr

Element Symbol
Zr
Atomic Weight
91.224
Atomic Number
40
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
1852
°C
Boiling Point
4409
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
58.2
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Hexagonal
Thermoconductivity
0.227
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,18,10,2
Group
Transition Metal
Period
5
Block
D Block
Orbitals
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
5.7 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.45 Å
Density at 293K
6.4 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
0.0236 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
6.6339 V
Second Ionization Potential
13.13 V
Third Ionization Potential
22.99 V
Ionic Radius
.84 (+4) Å
Oxydation States
4
Lattice Parameter
3.2313 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
4.388 Å
Pronounced

zer-KO-ni-em

Discovered by

Martin Klaproth

Discovery date

1789

Orbital configuration
2,8,18,10,2

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Transition Metals

55.845
26

Fe

Iron
112.414
48

Cd

Cadmium
269
106

Sg

Seaborgium
97
43

Tc

Technetium
102.905
45

Rh

Rhodium
54.938
25

Mn

Manganese
285
112

Cn

Copernicium
50.942
23

V

Vanadium
44.956
21

Sc

Scandium
190.23
76

Os

Osmium
200.592
80

Hg

Mercury
58.693
28

Ni

Nickel
107.868
47

Ag

Silver
106.42
46

Pd

Palladium
270
108

Hs

Hassium
178.49
72

Hf

Hafnium
95.95
42

Mo

Molybdenum
65.38
30

Zn

Zinc
63.546
29

Cu

Copper
88.906
39

Y

Yttrium
192.217
77

Ir

Iridium
186.207
75

Re

Rhenium
180.948
73

Ta

Tantalum
270
105

Db

Dubnium
101.07
44

Ru

Ruthenium
183.84
74

W

Tungsten
195.084
78

Pt

Platinum
58.933
27

Co

Cobalt
92.906
41

Nb

Niobium
196.967
79

Au

Gold
47.867
22

Ti

Titanium
270
107

Bh

Bohrium
267
104

Rf

Rutherfordium
51.996
24

Cr

Chromium
Transition metal is any of various chemical elements that have valence electrons (electrons that can participate in the formation of chemical bond) in two shells instead of only one. They form group 3 (IIIb) through group 12 (IIb).
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