Elements
21

Sc

Scandium

Scandium (Sc) is a silvery-white metal that has the atomic number 21 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 3 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Sc.

Scandium is a transition metal part of the d electron block of the periodic table and is categorised as a rare earth metal that is only found in ores and not naturally occurring in the earth’s crust. It is commonly present in deposits of Uranium and is difficult to extract. It was first discovered in 1879 by Lars Nilson who conducted a spectra of the unknown compound but it was not until 1937 that Fischer and co managed to isolate Scandium from ores. Industrially, the production of pure Scandium is difficult so it is very often produced as Scandium Oxide. Only three mines in the world are known to contain Scandium compounds. Scandium is used in the alloying of metals, commonly with aluminium due to its strength and lightweight. It is located in Group 3 and it has a melting point of 1541°c and a boiling point of 2836°c being a solid metal at room temperature.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Scandium?

Scandium has a Melting Point of 1541°F, meaning at 1541°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Scandium?

Scandium has a Boiling Point of 2836°F, meaning at 2836°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Scandium?

Scandium's Electronegativty is 1.36. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Scandium?

Scandium has a Heat of Vaporization of 314.2 kJ/mol.

Uses

Scandium metal is used in some aerospace applications. Scandum oxide (Sc2O3) is used in the manufacture of high-intensity electric lamps. Scandium iodide (ScI3) is used in lamps that produce light having a color closely matching natural sunlight.

Sources

Occurs mainly in the minerals thortveitile (~34% scandium) and wiikite. Also in some tin and tungsten ores. Pure scandium is obtained as a by-product of uranium refining.

21
Protons
21
Electrons
24
Neutrons

Sc

Element Symbol
Sc
Atomic Weight
44.956
Atomic Number
21
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
1541
°C
Boiling Point
2836
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
314.2
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Hexagonal
Thermoconductivity
0.158
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,9,2
Group
Transition Metal
Period
4
Block
D Block
Orbitals
[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
10.0 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.44 Å
Density at 293K
3.0 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
0.0177 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
6.5614 V
Second Ionization Potential
12.80 V
Third Ionization Potential
24.76 V
Ionic Radius
.75 (+3) Å
Oxydation States
3
Lattice Parameter
3.3091 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
--
Pronounced

SKAN-di-em

Discovered by

Lars Nilson

Discovery date

1879

Orbital configuration
2,8,9,2

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Transition Metals

270
108

Hs

Hassium
92.906
41

Nb

Niobium
97
43

Tc

Technetium
200.592
80

Hg

Mercury
190.23
76

Os

Osmium
267
104

Rf

Rutherfordium
58.933
27

Co

Cobalt
180.948
73

Ta

Tantalum
270
107

Bh

Bohrium
58.693
28

Ni

Nickel
195.084
78

Pt

Platinum
65.38
30

Zn

Zinc
88.906
39

Y

Yttrium
55.845
26

Fe

Iron
112.414
48

Cd

Cadmium
269
106

Sg

Seaborgium
50.942
23

V

Vanadium
106.42
46

Pd

Palladium
101.07
44

Ru

Ruthenium
54.938
25

Mn

Manganese
196.967
79

Au

Gold
186.207
75

Re

Rhenium
183.84
74

W

Tungsten
107.868
47

Ag

Silver
178.49
72

Hf

Hafnium
270
105

Db

Dubnium
102.905
45

Rh

Rhodium
51.996
24

Cr

Chromium
47.867
22

Ti

Titanium
285
112

Cn

Copernicium
91.224
40

Zr

Zirconium
95.95
42

Mo

Molybdenum
192.217
77

Ir

Iridium
63.546
29

Cu

Copper
Transition metal is any of various chemical elements that have valence electrons (electrons that can participate in the formation of chemical bond) in two shells instead of only one. They form group 3 (IIIb) through group 12 (IIb).
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