Titanium is a highly resistant transition metal with a low density and high strength. It exists in the earth’s crust combined with ores. It was discovered by Wiliiam Gregor in 1791 who recognised the element in the ore ilmenite which he was able to separate into the pure element titanium and oxides of iron, he however did not identify Titanium as an element. It was not until 1795 that the German chemist Martin Klaproth isolated pure Titanium and named it after the ‘Titans’ the sons of Greek gods. Titanium itself is used primarily in construction where often it is alloyed with Iron and Aluminium due to its strength and resistance to oxidation. It is also used in the construction of dental and medical devices. Due to its importance in construction it was a metal that during the cold war between the USSR and USA was stockpiled by both countries due to its strategic importance. Its compounds such as Titanium dioxide are commonly used as catalysts and also the production of white pigments, for example in sunscreen and paint. It is located in Group 4 and it has a melting point of 1688°c and a boiling point of 3287°c being a solid metal at room temperature.
Since it is strong and resists acids it is used in many alloys. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a white pigment that covers surfaces very well, is used in paint, rubber, paper and many others.
Usually occurs in the minerals ilmenite (FeTiO3) or rutile (TiO2). Also in Titaniferous magnetite, titanite (CaTiSiO5), and iron ores. Pure metal produced by heating TiO2 with C and Cl2 to produce TiCl4 then heated with Mg gas in Ar atmosphere.