Elements
41

Nb

Niobium

Niobium (Nb) is a shiny white metal that has the atomic number 41 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 5 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Nb.

Niobium was discovered in 1801 by the work of Charles Hatchett. Working on an ore from America called columbite due to its origin in Conneticut, he named the element Columbium. But it was not until 1846 that the German chemist Henrich Rose isolated Niobium. The name niobum comes from Greek mythology meaning the daughter of Tantalus ‘Niobe.’ Niobium itself is used with Iron in the production of stainless steel and also the production of other alloys with metals such as Zirconium. it is used to make heat resistant alloys, especially in the production of jet engines. Niobium is not found free in the earth’s crust but instead bonded to other elements in ores such as columbite and tantalite. It is located in Group 5 as a Transition metal. It has a melting point of 2477°c and a boiling point of 4744°c.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Niobium?

Niobium has a Melting Point of 2468°F, meaning at 2468°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Niobium?

Niobium has a Boiling Point of 4744°F, meaning at 4744°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Niobium?

Niobium's Electronegativty is 1.6. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Niobium?

Niobium has a Heat of Vaporization of 682 kJ/mol.

Uses

Used as an alloy with iron and nickel. It can be used in nuclear reactors and is known to be superconductive when alloyed with tin, aluminum or zirconium.

Sources

Occurs in a mineral columbite. Formerly known as colombium (Cb). It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets and missiles.

41
Protons
41
Electrons
52
Neutrons

Nb

Element Symbol
Nb
Atomic Weight
92.906
Atomic Number
41
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
2468
°C
Boiling Point
4744
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
682
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Cubic: Body centered
Thermoconductivity
0.537
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,18,12,1
Group
Transition Metal
Period
5
Block
D Block
Orbitals
[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
7.3 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.34 Å
Density at 293K
8.57 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
0.0693 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
6.7589 V
Second Ionization Potential
14.32 V
Third Ionization Potential
25.04 V
Ionic Radius
.64 (+5) Å
Oxydation States
(5),3
Lattice Parameter
3.3067 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
4.2818 Å
Pronounced

ni-OH-bee-em

Discovered by

Charles Hatchet

Discovery date

1801

Orbital configuration
2,8,18,12,1

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Transition Metals

270
107

Bh

Bohrium
55.845
26

Fe

Iron
63.546
29

Cu

Copper
112.414
48

Cd

Cadmium
180.948
73

Ta

Tantalum
97
43

Tc

Technetium
178.49
72

Hf

Hafnium
270
108

Hs

Hassium
101.07
44

Ru

Ruthenium
51.996
24

Cr

Chromium
190.23
76

Os

Osmium
44.956
21

Sc

Scandium
183.84
74

W

Tungsten
196.967
79

Au

Gold
195.084
78

Pt

Platinum
267
104

Rf

Rutherfordium
269
106

Sg

Seaborgium
54.938
25

Mn

Manganese
106.42
46

Pd

Palladium
88.906
39

Y

Yttrium
285
112

Cn

Copernicium
95.95
42

Mo

Molybdenum
192.217
77

Ir

Iridium
58.693
28

Ni

Nickel
47.867
22

Ti

Titanium
107.868
47

Ag

Silver
58.933
27

Co

Cobalt
200.592
80

Hg

Mercury
65.38
30

Zn

Zinc
50.942
23

V

Vanadium
91.224
40

Zr

Zirconium
102.905
45

Rh

Rhodium
186.207
75

Re

Rhenium
270
105

Db

Dubnium
Transition metal is any of various chemical elements that have valence electrons (electrons that can participate in the formation of chemical bond) in two shells instead of only one. They form group 3 (IIIb) through group 12 (IIb).
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