Elements
23

V

Vanadium

Vanadium (V) is a bright white soft metal that has the atomic number 23 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 5 of the periodic table. It has the symbol V.

Vanadium was discovered in 1801 by Spanish scientist Andres Manuel del Rio through his work with the ore vanadinite in Mexico, but it was not until 1867 when Sir Henry Roscoe of England managed to isolate Vanadium when reducing Vanadium chloride using Hydrogen. Vanadium was named by Scandinavian scientist Nils Gabriel Sefström after ‘Vanadis’ the Scandinavian goddess of beauty. Vanadium is a strong metal which is ductile and has a number of oxides. Its main use is in the production of steel where it is used to make alloys. 85% of Vanadium that is produced is used in Steel production due to its high resistance. It had its first use in the production of the first mass produced car the Model T Ford. Vanadium is not found free in the earth’s crust but exists in around 65 different ores. It is located in Group 5 and it has a melting point of 1910°c and a boiling point of 3407°c being a solid metal at room temperature.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Vanadium?

Vanadium has a Melting Point of 1890°F, meaning at 1890°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Vanadium?

Vanadium has a Boiling Point of 3380°F, meaning at 3380°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Vanadium?

Vanadium's Electronegativty is 1.63. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Vanadium?

Vanadium has a Heat of Vaporization of 0.452 kJ/mol.

Uses

It is mixed with other metals to make very strong and durable alloys. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is used as a catalyst, dye and color-fixer.

Sources

Found in the minerals patronite (VS4), vanadinite [Pb5(VO4)3Cl], and carnotite [K2(UO2)2(VO4)2.3H2O]. Pure metal produced by heating with C and Cl to produce VCl3 which is heated with Mg in Ar atmosphere.

23
Protons
23
Electrons
28
Neutrons

V

Element Symbol
V
Atomic Weight
50.942
Atomic Number
23
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
1890
°C
Boiling Point
3380
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
0.452
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Cubic: Body centered
Thermoconductivity
0.307
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,11,2
Group
Transition Metal
Period
4
Block
D Block
Orbitals
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
8.4 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.22 Å
Density at 293K
5.8 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
0.0489 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
6.7463 V
Second Ionization Potential
14.65 V
Third Ionization Potential
29.31 V
Ionic Radius
.54 (+5) Å
Oxydation States
(5),4,3,2
Lattice Parameter
3.0232 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
--
Pronounced

veh-NAY-di-em

Discovered by

Nils Sefström

Discovery date

1830

Orbital configuration
2,8,11,2

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Transition Metals

102.905
45

Rh

Rhodium
58.933
27

Co

Cobalt
51.996
24

Cr

Chromium
183.84
74

W

Tungsten
44.956
21

Sc

Scandium
270
107

Bh

Bohrium
269
106

Sg

Seaborgium
200.592
80

Hg

Mercury
270
105

Db

Dubnium
55.845
26

Fe

Iron
178.49
72

Hf

Hafnium
285
112

Cn

Copernicium
190.23
76

Os

Osmium
58.693
28

Ni

Nickel
192.217
77

Ir

Iridium
195.084
78

Pt

Platinum
107.868
47

Ag

Silver
95.95
42

Mo

Molybdenum
63.546
29

Cu

Copper
180.948
73

Ta

Tantalum
186.207
75

Re

Rhenium
101.07
44

Ru

Ruthenium
270
108

Hs

Hassium
54.938
25

Mn

Manganese
267
104

Rf

Rutherfordium
88.906
39

Y

Yttrium
97
43

Tc

Technetium
65.38
30

Zn

Zinc
112.414
48

Cd

Cadmium
196.967
79

Au

Gold
47.867
22

Ti

Titanium
106.42
46

Pd

Palladium
91.224
40

Zr

Zirconium
92.906
41

Nb

Niobium
Transition metal is any of various chemical elements that have valence electrons (electrons that can participate in the formation of chemical bond) in two shells instead of only one. They form group 3 (IIIb) through group 12 (IIb).
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