Elements
31

Ga

Gallium

Gallium (Ga) is a silver metal that has the atomic number 31 in the periodic table. It is located in Group 13 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ga.

Gallium is a relatively soft metal which at temperatures of greater than 29 °c begins to melt. Gallium was one of the first elements predicted by Dimitri Mendeleev who hypothesised it would have properties similar to Aluminium so he called it eka-aluminium. It was discovered by the French chemistry Paul Lecoq de Boisbaudran who used spectroscopy to discover the unknown metal in 1875. It was extracted from Zinc ores that contained small amounts of Gallium he isolated through electrolysis. Gallium’s location next to the non metals in the periodic table means some of its standard metallic properties are not so metallic, it is a brittle metal and also a poor conductor of electricity. Gallium is used in thermometers and also the produce lasers and diodes. It is located in Group 13 and it has a melting point of 29°c and a boiling point of 2400°c being a solid metal at room temperature.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Gallium?

Gallium has a Melting Point of 29.78°F, meaning at 29.78°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Gallium?

Gallium has a Boiling Point of 2204°F, meaning at 2204°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Gallium?

Gallium's Electronegativty is 1.81. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Gallium?

Gallium has a Heat of Vaporization of 258.7 kJ/mol.

Uses

Used in semiconductor production. It us used in making LEDs (light-emitting diodes) and GaAs laser diodes.

Sources

Found throughout the crust in minerals like bauxite, germanite and coal.

31
Protons
31
Electrons
39
Neutrons

Ga

Element Symbol
Ga
Atomic Weight
69.723
Atomic Number
31
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
29.78
°C
Boiling Point
2204
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
258.7
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Orthorhombic
Thermoconductivity
0.406
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,18,3
Group
Post-Transition Metal
Period
4
Block
P Block
Orbitals
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
19.7 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.26 Å
Density at 293K
5.907 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
0.0678 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
5.9993 V
Second Ionization Potential
20.51 V
Third Ionization Potential
30.71 V
Ionic Radius
.62 (+3) Å
Oxydation States
3
Lattice Parameter
4.523 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
4.9592 Å
Pronounced

GAL-i-em

Discovered by

Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran

Discovery date

1875

Orbital configuration
2,8,18,3

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Post-Transition Metals

118.71
50

Sn

Tin
208.98
83

Bi

Bismuth
209
84

Po

Polonium
26.982
13

Al

Aluminium
204.38
81

Tl

Thallium
114.818
49

In

Indium
207.2
82

Pb

Lead
The post-transition metals are the ones found between the transition metals (to the left) and the metalloids (to the right). They include aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), tin (Sn), lead (Pb) and bismuth (Bi).
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32