Carbon is a widely abundant chemical in both the earth’s atmosphere in the compound Carbon Dioxide and in the earth’s crust as the allotropes Coal, Diamond and Graphite. It is the foundation of many organic molecules and its own field of chemistry. In every day life it is often found in pencils as Graphite, jewelry as Diamond rings and in fuel as coal and oil. Diamond and Graphite are two of the hardest substances known to man and as such have uses in drilling and other industrial applications. Graphite itself is also inert so is often favoured as an electrode in electrolysis as it is able to conduct electricity. All allotropes of Carbon exist as solids at room temperature. It is located in Group 14. It is a solid at room temperature and it has a melting point of (Diamond) 3550°c and a boiling point of 3800°c. Carbon has long been known as an element in its various forms since the time of the Egyptians. It was the first tattoo pigment used over 5200 years ago on Otzi the Iceman, a perfectly mummified specimen of early man preserved in ice on the Austrian-Italy border.
Known to the ancients.