Elements
15

P

Phosphorus

Phosphorus (P) is most commonly a white-yellow solid non metal in Group 15 of the periodic table. It has the atomic number 15. It has the symbol P.

Phosphorus is an element with four allotropes (versions) White, Red, Violet and Black. They all have different densities based on their crystalline structure. Phosphorus has many different uses. Red Phosphorus is most commonly used in match heads as it is combustible. Phosphorus is also present in the human body in the structure of RNA and DNA as a phosphate compound. It is also important in the production of ATP and ADP in the process of respiration. Phosphorus is also used commonly in fertiliser due to its importance in plants. Phosphorus is commonly found in bat droppings also known as Guano, in 1879 Bolivia, Chile and Peru fought a short war over land that was high in bat populations due to the importance of the elements. Phosphorus was discovered in 1669 by Hennig Brand where he used urine and evaporated it to leave a residue that when heated produced solid White Phosphorus. It was not until 1770 when the Swedish scientist Carl Wilhelm Scheele used Chlorine and Oxygen to extract Phosphorus from bones. It is located in Group 15 as a non metal white yellow solid at room temperature, it is brittle. It has a melting point of 44°c and a boiling point of 280°c.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Phosphorus?

Phosphorus has a Melting Point of 44.1°F, meaning at 44.1°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Phosphorus?

Phosphorus has a Boiling Point of 280°F, meaning at 280°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Phosphorus?

Phosphorus's Electronegativty is 2.19. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Phosphorus?

Phosphorus has a Heat of Vaporization of 12.129 kJ/mol.

Uses

Used in the production of fertilizers and detergents. Some is used in fireworks, safety matches, and incendiary weapons. Also some applications for it and some of its compounds which glow in the dark.

Sources

Found most often in phosphate rock. Pure phosphorus is obtained by heating a mixture of phosphate rock, coke, and silica to about 1450 °C.

15
Protons
15
Electrons
16
Neutrons

P

Element Symbol
P
Atomic Weight
30.974
Atomic Number
15
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
44.1
°C
Boiling Point
280
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
12.129
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Cubic
Thermoconductivity
0.00235
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,5
Group
Non-Metal
Period
3
Block
P Block
Orbitals
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
127 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.06 Å
Density at 293K
1.82 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
1.0e-17 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
10.4867 V
Second Ionization Potential
19.725 V
Third Ionization Potential
30.18 V
Ionic Radius
.17 (+5) Å
Oxydation States
±3,(5),7
Lattice Parameter
3.3137 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
--
Pronounced

FOS-fer-es

Discovered by

Hennig Brand

Discovery date

1669

Orbital configuration
2,8,5

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Non-Metals

1.008
1

H

Hydrogen
12.011
6

C

Carbon
32.06
16

S

Sulphur
14.007
7

N

Nitrogen
15.999
8

O

Oxygen
78.971
34

Se

Selenium
Non-metals are the substances that do not exhibit such characteristic of metals as hardness, mechanical adaptability or the ability to conduct electricity. This series contains a few non-metals located in different groups of the periodic table: hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), oxygen (O), sulfur (S) and selenium (Se).
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