Elements
79

Au

Gold

Gold (Au) is a soft gold coloured metal that has the atomic number 79 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 11. It has the symbol Au.

Gold is a precious metal that is found uncombined and naturally in the earth’s crust. It is often purified using cyanide and mercury meaning its production produces a lot of waste. Gold is used in coins and jewelry due to its malleability and attractive colour. It is also used as a heat shield on space craft due to its excellent reflective ability. Gold flake has been used in food production and is safe to eat. Gold is a metal that has been treasured by humans for years. It’s exact discovery is unknown but it can be traced back to Bulgaria in the year 4500BC where a number of gold objects were crafted. Gold was prized by the Egyptians and Romans. It was also the focus of the work of many alchemists who believed they could make gold by mixing mercury and sulfur. It is a solid metal at room temperature with a melting point of 1064°c and a boiling point of 2700°c.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Gold?

Gold has a Melting Point of 1064.3°F, meaning at 1064.3°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Gold?

Gold has a Boiling Point of 2808°F, meaning at 2808°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Gold?

Gold's Electronegativty is 2.54. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Gold?

Gold has a Heat of Vaporization of 334.4 kJ/mol.

Uses

Very malleable. Used in electronics, jewelry and coins. It is a good reflector of infrared radiation, so a thin film of gold is applied to the glass of skyscrapers to reduce internal heating from sunlight.

Sources

Found in veins in the crust, with cooper ore and native .

79
Protons
79
Electrons
118
Neutrons

Au

Element Symbol
Au
Atomic Weight
196.967
Atomic Number
79
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
1064.3
°C
Boiling Point
2808
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
334.4
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Cubic: Face centered
Thermoconductivity
3.17
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,18,32,18,1
Group
Transition Metal
Period
6
Block
D Block
Orbitals
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
14.2 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.34 Å
Density at 293K
19.32 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
0.452 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
9.2257 V
Second Ionization Potential
20.521 V
Third Ionization Potential
--
Ionic Radius
.85 (+3) Å
Oxydation States
(3),1
Lattice Parameter
4.0786 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
4.723 Å
Lattice Parameter 3
--
Pronounced

GOLD

Discovered by

Known to the ancients.

Discovery date

1848

Orbital configuration
2,8,18,32,18,1

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Transition Metals

267
104

Rf

Rutherfordium
270
108

Hs

Hassium
50.942
23

V

Vanadium
44.956
21

Sc

Scandium
112.414
48

Cd

Cadmium
95.95
42

Mo

Molybdenum
195.084
78

Pt

Platinum
63.546
29

Cu

Copper
101.07
44

Ru

Ruthenium
47.867
22

Ti

Titanium
186.207
75

Re

Rhenium
88.906
39

Y

Yttrium
55.845
26

Fe

Iron
107.868
47

Ag

Silver
183.84
74

W

Tungsten
58.933
27

Co

Cobalt
285
112

Cn

Copernicium
54.938
25

Mn

Manganese
270
105

Db

Dubnium
192.217
77

Ir

Iridium
92.906
41

Nb

Niobium
269
106

Sg

Seaborgium
58.693
28

Ni

Nickel
180.948
73

Ta

Tantalum
178.49
72

Hf

Hafnium
97
43

Tc

Technetium
190.23
76

Os

Osmium
65.38
30

Zn

Zinc
102.905
45

Rh

Rhodium
51.996
24

Cr

Chromium
200.592
80

Hg

Mercury
270
107

Bh

Bohrium
106.42
46

Pd

Palladium
91.224
40

Zr

Zirconium
Transition metal is any of various chemical elements that have valence electrons (electrons that can participate in the formation of chemical bond) in two shells instead of only one. They form group 3 (IIIb) through group 12 (IIb).
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