Elements
72

Hf

Hafnium

Hafnium (Hf) is a silvery coloured metal that has the atomic number 72 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal in Group 4. It has the symbol Hf.

Hafnium was predicted to exist by Mendeleev but it was not until 1911 that Georges Urbain, the discoverer of Lutetium, thought he had discovered Hafnium but it was not to be. It was just a mixture of lanthanides. It was in 1923 that Georg Von Hevesy and Dirk Coster discovered Hafnium by x-ray spectroscopy of Zirconium ores. It is named after the latin ‘Hafnia’ the Latin for the city of Copenhagen. It is used in nuclear control rods to absorb neutrons and is corrosion resistant. Hafnium is not found free in nature but mostly in zirconium ores. It is a solid metal at room temperature with a melting point of 2233°c and a boiling point of 4602°c.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Hafnium?

Hafnium has a Melting Point of 2227°F, meaning at 2227°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Hafnium?

Hafnium has a Boiling Point of 4603°F, meaning at 4603°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Hafnium?

Hafnium's Electronegativty is 1.3. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Hafnium?

Hafnium has a Heat of Vaporization of 575 kJ/mol.

Uses

Used in reactor control rods because of its ability to absorb neutrons.

Sources

Obtained from mineral zircon or baddeleyite.

72
Protons
72
Electrons
106
Neutrons

Hf

Element Symbol
Hf
Atomic Weight
178.49
Atomic Number
72
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
2227
°C
Boiling Point
4603
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
575
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Hexagonal
Thermoconductivity
0.23
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,18,32,10,2
Group
Transition Metal
Period
6
Block
D Block
Orbitals
[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
5.9 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.44 Å
Density at 293K
13.2 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
0.0312 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
6.8251 V
Second Ionization Potential
14.925 V
Third Ionization Potential
23.32 V
Ionic Radius
.83 (+4) Å
Oxydation States
4
Lattice Parameter
3.1947 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
4.458 Å
Pronounced

HAF-ni-em

Discovered by

Dirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy

Discovery date

1923

Orbital configuration
2,8,18,32,10,2

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Transition Metals

58.933
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Co

Cobalt
196.967
79

Au

Gold
107.868
47

Ag

Silver
192.217
77

Ir

Iridium
88.906
39

Y

Yttrium
97
43

Tc

Technetium
186.207
75

Re

Rhenium
190.23
76

Os

Osmium
63.546
29

Cu

Copper
267
104

Rf

Rutherfordium
183.84
74

W

Tungsten
269
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Sg

Seaborgium
95.95
42

Mo

Molybdenum
270
107

Bh

Bohrium
106.42
46

Pd

Palladium
58.693
28

Ni

Nickel
180.948
73

Ta

Tantalum
270
105

Db

Dubnium
101.07
44

Ru

Ruthenium
54.938
25

Mn

Manganese
285
112

Cn

Copernicium
65.38
30

Zn

Zinc
102.905
45

Rh

Rhodium
47.867
22

Ti

Titanium
51.996
24

Cr

Chromium
270
108

Hs

Hassium
91.224
40

Zr

Zirconium
92.906
41

Nb

Niobium
195.084
78

Pt

Platinum
112.414
48

Cd

Cadmium
50.942
23

V

Vanadium
55.845
26

Fe

Iron
200.592
80

Hg

Mercury
44.956
21

Sc

Scandium
Transition metal is any of various chemical elements that have valence electrons (electrons that can participate in the formation of chemical bond) in two shells instead of only one. They form group 3 (IIIb) through group 12 (IIb).
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