Elements
44

Ru

Ruthenium

Ruthenium (Ru) is a brittle silver-gray metal that has the atomic number 44 in the periodic table. It is a Transition metal and located in Group 8 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ru.

Ruthenium was one of the last platinum group of metals to be discovered in 1828. It was initially believed that chemists Jons Jacob Berzelius and Gottfried W. Osann examined residues left over from platinum ores, they identified as three different elements. It was not until 1844 when Karl Klaus in Russia repeated the results and proved that Ruthenium was one of the only new element samples discovered. Ruthenium metal is highly toxic and dangerous to humans as a carcingoen. It is used to harden platinum and palladium in the alloying process, it is also used in some catalytic processes. Ruthenium is found free in nature due to its relative unreactivity. It is located in Group 8 as a Transition metal. It has a melting point of 2330°c and a boiling point of 4150°c.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Ruthenium?

Ruthenium has a Melting Point of 2334°F, meaning at 2334°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Ruthenium?

Ruthenium has a Boiling Point of 4150°F, meaning at 4150°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Ruthenium?

Ruthenium's Electronegativty is 2.2. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Ruthenium?

Ruthenium has a Heat of Vaporization of 595 kJ/mol.

Uses

Used to harden platinum and palladium. Aircraft magnetos use platinum alloy with 10% ruthenium.

Sources

Found in pentlandite and pyroxinite.

44
Protons
44
Electrons
57
Neutrons

Ru

Element Symbol
Ru
Atomic Weight
101.07
Atomic Number
44
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
2334
°C
Boiling Point
4150
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
595
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Hexagonal
Thermoconductivity
1.17
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,18,15,1
Group
Transition Metal
Period
5
Block
D Block
Orbitals
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
6.4 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.25 Å
Density at 293K
12.2 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
0.137 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
7.3605 V
Second Ionization Potential
16.76 V
Third Ionization Potential
28.47 V
Ionic Radius
.62 (+4) Å
Oxydation States
2,(3,4),6,8
Lattice Parameter
2.7059 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
--
Pronounced

roo-THE-ni-em

Discovered by

Karl Klaus

Discovery date

1844

Orbital configuration
2,8,18,15,1

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Transition Metals

55.845
26

Fe

Iron
51.996
24

Cr

Chromium
192.217
77

Ir

Iridium
112.414
48

Cd

Cadmium
97
43

Tc

Technetium
180.948
73

Ta

Tantalum
58.933
27

Co

Cobalt
196.967
79

Au

Gold
47.867
22

Ti

Titanium
195.084
78

Pt

Platinum
54.938
25

Mn

Manganese
183.84
74

W

Tungsten
270
108

Hs

Hassium
267
104

Rf

Rutherfordium
50.942
23

V

Vanadium
270
107

Bh

Bohrium
63.546
29

Cu

Copper
270
105

Db

Dubnium
106.42
46

Pd

Palladium
269
106

Sg

Seaborgium
102.905
45

Rh

Rhodium
200.592
80

Hg

Mercury
107.868
47

Ag

Silver
92.906
41

Nb

Niobium
190.23
76

Os

Osmium
88.906
39

Y

Yttrium
186.207
75

Re

Rhenium
65.38
30

Zn

Zinc
178.49
72

Hf

Hafnium
91.224
40

Zr

Zirconium
285
112

Cn

Copernicium
58.693
28

Ni

Nickel
95.95
42

Mo

Molybdenum
44.956
21

Sc

Scandium
Transition metal is any of various chemical elements that have valence electrons (electrons that can participate in the formation of chemical bond) in two shells instead of only one. They form group 3 (IIIb) through group 12 (IIb).
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