Ruthenium was one of the last platinum group of metals to be discovered in 1828. It was initially believed that chemists Jons Jacob Berzelius and Gottfried W. Osann examined residues left over from platinum ores, they identified as three different elements. It was not until 1844 when Karl Klaus in Russia repeated the results and proved that Ruthenium was one of the only new element samples discovered. Ruthenium metal is highly toxic and dangerous to humans as a carcingoen. It is used to harden platinum and palladium in the alloying process, it is also used in some catalytic processes. Ruthenium is found free in nature due to its relative unreactivity. It is located in Group 8 as a Transition metal. It has a melting point of 2330°c and a boiling point of 4150°c.