Elements
20

Ca

Calcium

Calcium (Ca) is a silvery-white soft metal that has the atomic number 20 in the periodic table. It is an Alkaline Earth Metal and is located in Group 2 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Ca.

Calcium is an Alkaline earth metal in Group 2 of the periodic table that is the fifth most abundant element in the earths crust, forming compounds such as limestone and fossils. Calcium compounds have been known for years from the early days of sculpture using Calcium Carbonate (Limestone) but it was not until 1808 that Sir Humphry Davy isolated Calcium using electrolysis on a mixture of Calcium oxide and Mercuric Oxide. It has a wide variety of uses in the food industry as a supplement for the human body where it is important in nerve transmission and bone strength. A deficiency of calcium can lead to severe diseases such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia. In the human body Calcium and Vitamin D interact to improve the uptake of Calcium into bones. Calcium is also used in the paper industry as a bleach and in electrical insulators. It is a reactive metal so is not found naturally in the earth’s crust, instead existing as a compound most commonly Calcium Carbonate (Limestone). It is located in Group 2 as an Alkaline earth metal which is very reactive with water. It has a melting point of 842°c and a boiling point of 1484°c.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Calcium?

Calcium has a Melting Point of 842°F, meaning at 842°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Calcium?

Calcium has a Boiling Point of 1484°F, meaning at 1484°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Calcium?

Calcium's Electronegativty is 1. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Calcium?

Calcium has a Heat of Vaporization of 153.6 kJ/mol.

Uses

Used by many forms of life to make shells and bones. Virtually no use for the pure metal, however two of its compounds are, lime (CaO) and gypsum (CaSO4), are in great demand by a number of industries.

Sources

Obtained from minerals like chalk, limestone & marble. Pure metal is produced by replacing the calcium in lime (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) with aluminium in hot, low pressure retorts.

20
Protons
20
Electrons
20
Neutrons

Ca

Element Symbol
Ca
Atomic Weight
40.078
Atomic Number
20
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
842
°C
Boiling Point
1484
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
153.6
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Cubic: Face centered
Thermoconductivity
2
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,8,2
Group
Alkali Earth Metal
Period
4
Block
S Block
Orbitals
[Ar] 4s2
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
22.3 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.74 Å
Density at 293K
1.55 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
0.298 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
6.1132 V
Second Ionization Potential
11.871 V
Third Ionization Potential
50.908 V
Ionic Radius
1.00 (+2) Å
Oxydation States
2
Lattice Parameter
5.5886 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
--
Pronounced

KAL-si-em

Discovered by

Sir Humphrey Davy

Discovery date

1808

Orbital configuration
2,8,8,2

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Alkali Earth Metals

87.62
38

Sr

Strontium
226
88

Ra

Radium
9.012
4

Be

Beryllium
24.305
12

Mg

Magnesium
137.327
56

Ba

Barium
Alkaline earth metals is the second most reactive group of elements in the periodic table. They are found in group 2 of the periodic table (formally known as group IIA).
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