Elements
14

Si

Silicon

Silicon (Si) is a crystalline blue-grey solid with a metallic appearance. It is a metalloid that has the atomic number 14 in the periodic table. It is in Group 14 of the periodic table. It has the symbol Si.

Silicon is the. 8th most abundant element in the universe and is the second most abundant element by weight on earth. It is most commonly found in compounds and never found naturally. The compounds of silicon are known as silicates and they make up over 90% of the earths crusts. The most common forms of Silicon found in the earth’s crust are oxides like sand and quartz. Silicon is most commonly used in semiconductors the most well known are computer circuits and microelectronics due to its property being able to conduct electricity. This Silicon is often mixed with other metals to increase its conductivity. Many scientists worked on the discovery of Silicon but it wasn’t until 1823 that Jöns Jacob Berzelius isolated Silicon by his reduction of Potassium fluorosilicate using Potassium metal to produce pure Silicon. It is located in Group 14 as a metalloid solid at room temperature, it is relatively light weight and strong. It has a melting point of 1414°c and a boiling point of 3265°c.

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FAQ's

What is the Melting Point for Silicon?

Silicon has a Melting Point of 1410°F, meaning at 1410°F it will turn to a liquid.

What is the Boiling Point for Silicon?

Silicon has a Boiling Point of 2355°F, meaning at 2355°F it will turn to a Gas.

What is the Electronegativity of Silicon?

Silicon's Electronegativty is 1.9. Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons to themselves.

What is the Heat of Vaporization of Silicon?

Silicon has a Heat of Vaporization of 384.22 kJ/mol.

Uses

Used in glass as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest substances known and used in polishing. Also the crystalline form is used in semiconductors.

Sources

Makes up major portion of clay, granite, quartz (SiO2), and sand. Commercial production depends on a reaction between sand (SiO2) and carbon at a temperature of around 2200 °C.

14
Protons
14
Electrons
14
Neutrons

Si

Element Symbol
Si
Atomic Weight
28.085
Atomic Number
14
State
Solid
Melting Point
Unknown
1410
°C
Boiling Point
2355
Unknown
°C
Heat of Vaporization
384.22
Unknown
kJ/mol
Crystal Structure
Cubic: Face centered
Thermoconductivity
1.48
Unknown
W/cmK
Shells
2,8,4
Group
Metalloid
Period
3
Block
P Block
Orbitals
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
2.6 10^-6 K^-1
Covalent Radius
1.11 Å
Density at 293K
2.33 g/cm³
Electrical Conductivity
2.52e-12 10^6/cm ohm
First Ionization Potential
8.1517 V
Second Ionization Potential
16.345 V
Third Ionization Potential
33.492 V
Ionic Radius
.26 (+4) Å
Oxydation States
2,(4),-4
Lattice Parameter
5.4309 Å
Lattice Parameter 2
--
Lattice Parameter 3
--
Pronounced

SIL-i-ken

Discovered by

Jöns Berzelius

Discovery date

1823

Orbital configuration
2,8,4

Download the Periodic Table

Explore Other Metalloids

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Sb

Antimony
72.63
32

Ge

Germanium
74.922
33

As

Arsenic
10.811
5

B

Boron
127.6
52

Te

Tellurium
Metalloids are the chemical elements with the properties intermediate between those of typical metals and nonmetals. There is neither standard definition of a metalloid nor agreement on elements classified as such.
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