Silicon is the. 8th most abundant element in the universe and is the second most abundant element by weight on earth. It is most commonly found in compounds and never found naturally. The compounds of silicon are known as silicates and they make up over 90% of the earths crusts. The most common forms of Silicon found in the earth’s crust are oxides like sand and quartz. Silicon is most commonly used in semiconductors the most well known are computer circuits and microelectronics due to its property being able to conduct electricity. This Silicon is often mixed with other metals to increase its conductivity. Many scientists worked on the discovery of Silicon but it wasn’t until 1823 that Jöns Jacob Berzelius isolated Silicon by his reduction of Potassium fluorosilicate using Potassium metal to produce pure Silicon. It is located in Group 14 as a metalloid solid at room temperature, it is relatively light weight and strong. It has a melting point of 1414°c and a boiling point of 3265°c.
Used in glass as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest substances known and used in polishing. Also the crystalline form is used in semiconductors.
Makes up major portion of clay, granite, quartz (SiO2), and sand. Commercial production depends on a reaction between sand (SiO2) and carbon at a temperature of around 2200 °C.